Practical use of home blood pressure monitoring in chronic kidney disease.

Abstract

Despite the availability of blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications and dietary education, hypertension is still poorly controlled in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. As glomerular filtration rate declines, the number of medications required to achieve BP targets increases, which may lead to reduced patient adherence and therapeutic inertia by the clinician. Home BP monitoring (HBPM) has emerged as a means of improving diagnostic accuracy, risk stratification, patient adherence, and therapeutic intervention. The definition of hypertension by HBPM is an average BP >135/85 mm Hg. Twelve readings over the course of 3-5 days are sufficient for clinical decision making. Diagnostic accuracy is especially important in the CKD population as approximately half of these patients have either white coat hypertension or masked hypertension. Preliminary data suggest that HBPM outperforms office BP monitoring in predicting progression to end-stage renal disease or death. When combined with additional support such as telemonitoring, medication titration, or behavioral therapy, HBPM results in a sustained improvement in BP control. HBPM must be adapted to provide information on the phenomena of nondipping (absence of nocturnal fall in BP) and reverse dipping (paradoxical increase in BP at night). These diurnal patterns are more prevalent in the CKD population and are important cardiovascular risk factors. Ambulatory BP monitoring provides nocturnal BP readings and unlike HBPM may be reimbursed by Medicare when certain criteria are met. Further studies are needed to determine whether HBPM is cost-effective in the current US healthcare system.

DOI: 10.1159/000363114

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Cite this paper

@article{Sanghavi2014PracticalUO, title={Practical use of home blood pressure monitoring in chronic kidney disease.}, author={Sarah Sanghavi and Joseph A. Vassalotti}, journal={Cardiorenal medicine}, year={2014}, volume={4 2}, pages={113-22} }