Practical long-distance quantum communication using concatenated entanglement swapping

@article{Khalique2013PracticalLQ,
  title={Practical long-distance quantum communication using concatenated entanglement swapping},
  author={Aeysha Khalique and Wolfgang Tittel and Barry C. Sanders},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2013},
  volume={88},
  pages={022336}
}
We construct a theory for long-distance quantum communication based on sharing entanglement through a linear chain of $N$ elementary swapping segments of length $L=Nl$ where $l$ is the length of each elementary swap setup. Entanglement swapping is achieved by linear optics, photon counting, and postselection, and we include effects due to multiphoton sources, transmission loss, and detector inefficiencies and dark counts. Specifically we calculate the resultant four-mode state shared by the two… 
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