Powassan Virus—A New Reemerging Tick-Borne Disease

@article{Fatmi2017PowassanVN,
  title={Powassan Virus—A New Reemerging Tick-Borne Disease},
  author={Syed S. Fatmi and Rija Zehra and David O. Carpenter},
  journal={Frontiers in Public Health},
  year={2017},
  volume={5}
}
Powassan virus is a neurovirulent flavivirus consisting of two lineages causing meningoencephalitis. It is the only member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup which is present in mainland North America. With a total number of 27 cases from 1958 to 1998 and 98 cases from 1999 to 2016, reported cases have increased by 671% over the last 18 years. Powassan infection is transmitted by different tick species in different geographical regions. Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector that… Expand
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TLDR
This review provides an overview of Powassan virus, including the epidemiology, transmission, clinical disease, and diagnosis of POWV infection, and recent research developments and future priorities with regard to the disease are emphasized. Expand
Molecular epidemiology of Powassan virus in North America
TLDR
It is confirmed that POW and DTV sequences are relatively stable over time, which suggests strong evolutionary constraint, and support field observations that suggest that tick-borne flavivirus populations are extremely stable in enzootic foci. Expand
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TLDR
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Powassan virus infection: case series and literature review from a single institution
TLDR
There is a need for clinician vigilance and public attention due to its increasing detection, westward progression and varied clinical presentations of Powassan virus infection in the central north United States. Expand
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TLDR
Although POWV disease is probably under-recognized, and it causes significant morbidity, and thus is an additional tick-borne emerging infectious disease entity, the basis of prevention is personal protection from ticks and reduced exposure to peridomestic wild mammals. Expand
Tick Saliva Enhances Powassan Virus Transmission to the Host, Influencing Its Dissemination and the Course of Disease
TLDR
It is concluded that saliva-activated transmission occurs in mice infected with a low dose of POWV, the first to demonstrate virus dose-dependent saliva- activated transmission, warranting further investigation of the specific salivary factors responsible for enhancing POWV transmission. Expand
Prevalence and genetic characterization of Powassan virus strains infecting Ixodes scapularis in Connecticut.
TLDR
Findings suggest that Powassan virus was independently introduced into these geographical locations in Connecticut and maintained focally in their respective environments. Expand
Modeling Powassan virus infection in Peromyscus leucopus, a natural host
TLDR
It is concluded that Peromyscus leucopus mice infected with a lethal dose of POWV support a limited infection, restricted to the central nervous system and mount an antibody response to the virus. Expand
Immune Cell Targets of Infection at the Tick-Skin Interface during Powassan Virus Transmission
TLDR
This is the first report demonstrating that macrophages and fibroblasts contain POWV antigens, which suggests that they are early cellular targets of infection at the tick feeding site, and provides key insights towards defining the complex interactions between the host immune response and early tick-mediated immunomodulation. Expand
Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America.
TLDR
The lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus, one of which had the prototype POW virus and the other DT virus, both of which can cause central nervous system infection in humans. Expand
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