Potentiation of teratogenesis.

@article{Ritter1984PotentiationOT,
  title={Potentiation of teratogenesis.},
  author={E. J. Ritter},
  journal={Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology},
  year={1984},
  volume={4 3 Pt 1},
  pages={
          352-9
        }
}
  • E. Ritter
  • Published 1 June 1984
  • Biology
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Teratology studies were conducted with rats on Days 10 or 12 of gestation using combinations of a variety of agents including inhibitors of DNA, RNA, protein, and purine synthesis. With the exception of administration of pairs of DNA inhibitors, most combinations showed potentiation of embryolethality and teratogenesis as compared to that seen with the use of the individual agents. In conjunction with earlier studies with caffeine, acetazolamide, and other agents, it is seen that combinations… 
Inhibition of metabolic cooperation by the anticonvulsants, diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital.
TLDR
Diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital, suspected human and animal teratogens and tumor promoters, were able to inhibit intercellular communication at noncytotoxic doses.
Embryotoxicity induced by alkylating agents: 10. Analysis of the combined teratogenic effects of methylnitrosourea and ethylmethanesulfonate in mice.
TLDR
The initially surprising high combination effect revealed to be not so extraordinary when considering the steepness of the dose-response relationships of the single substances.
Combined prenatal toxicity of 6-mercaptopurine riboside and hydroxyurea in mice.
TLDR
The interaction between these two compounds with regard to teratogenicity in NMRI mice was investigated and the influence of HU on the 6-MPr-induced DNA modification was determined by measuring the incorporation of 6-thioguanine into the DNA of day-11 embryos.
Interactions in developmental toxicology: a literature review and terminology proposal.
TLDR
This paper proposes uniform usage of terms for additivity and interactions in developmental toxicology: additivity, antagonism, potentiation, synergism, and, interaction if more precise terminology does not apply.
DNA alkylation studies of combined treatment with methylnitrosourea and ethylmethanesulfonate in mice.
TLDR
The interaction of the DNA-alkylating model compounds, ethylmethanesulfonate and methylnitrosourea, was studied in pregnant NMRI mice by measuring DNA adduction in vivo and the mutual influence of EMS and MNU on the DNA alkylation rates was found to be moderate.
Maternal and developmental toxicity of low doses of cytosine arabinoside in mice.
TLDR
The developmental no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of Ara-C in the pregnant mouse is lower than 0.5 mg/kg/day, while the NOAEL for maternal toxicity is 0.1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C).
NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of hydroxyurea.
TLDR
Hydroxyurea was selected for evaluation by a CERHR expert panel because of its increasing use in the treatment of sickle cell disease in children and adults, knowledge that it inhibits DNA synthesis and is cytotoxic, and published evidence of its reproductive and developmental toxicity in rodents.
NTP Monograph: Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy.
TLDR
Treatment with chemotherapy for cancer during pregnancy did not appear to increase spontaneous preterm birth, or impair normal growth and development of offspring during early life, and possible actions to improve the understanding of the developmental effects of chemotherapy treatment for cancer administered during pregnancy were discussed.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
Potentiative interactions between caffeine and various teratogenic agents.
TLDR
It is not clear from the present experiments whether much lower caffeine dosage, as normally encountered in humans, would potentiate embryotoxicity due to other agents.
TERATOGENIC INTERACTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS IN THE RAT
TLDR
It is established that chemical teratogenic agents can be used in certain combinations at low, even subthreshold dosages, to produce malformations at a rate considerably above the rate expected when only one agent is used alone.
Teratogenesis and inhibition of DNA synthesis induced in rat embryos by cytosine arabinoside.
TLDR
Embryotoxic effects in 20-day fetuses were more closely related to the cumulative suppression of DNA synthesis caused by a given dosage than with either the level at any one posttreatment interval or the duration of the suppression.
Experimental study of teratogenic effect of emotional stress in rats.
TLDR
The teratogenic effect of audiovisual and immobilization stress was studied in rats and it was shown that the stresses alone had no effect on congenital malformations.
Teratogenic Action of a Hypocaloric Diet and Small Doses of Cortisone.∗
  • H. Kalter
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1960
Summary Two relatively small doses of cortisone acetate administered to pregnant mice caused 1.4 and 12.0% cleft palate, respectively, in the offspring. A hypocaloric diet, consisting of about 40% of
Current Status of Teratology
TLDR
Experimental teratology in the modern sense can be said to have begun in the 1940s when Warkany and his associates first forcefully called attention to the fact environmental factors such as maternal dietary deficiencies and X-irradiation could adversely affect intrauterine development in mammals.
Cell Death and Reduced Proliferative Rate
TLDR
It becomes necessary to know the secondary consequences of cell death in a particular organ system so that the temporal and quantitative aspects of necrosis needed to produce malformation become explainable.
Interactions and Multiple Causes
TLDR
No mother, embryo, gene, or teratogen is “an island unto himself,” and the literature is replete with examples of interactions between two or more of these that influence the frequency of malformations.
STRUCTURAL BASIS FOR INHIBITION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY EMETINE AND CYCLOHEXIMIDE BASED ON AN ANALOGY BETWEEN IPECAC ALKALOIDS AND GLUTARIMIDE ANTIBIOTICS*
  • A. Grollman
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1966
TLDR
It is shown that emetine is a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in mammalian and other cells, a mode of action which may account for its therapeutic and toxic properties and suggests new pharmaceutical preparations of potential value.
...
...