Potentiation of West Nile encephalitis by mosquito feeding.

@article{Schneider2006PotentiationOW,
  title={Potentiation of West Nile encephalitis by mosquito feeding.},
  author={B. S. Schneider and L. Soong and Y. A. Girard and G. Campbell and P. Mason and S. Higgs},
  journal={Viral immunology},
  year={2006},
  volume={19 1},
  pages={
          74-82
        }
}
Mosquitoes infect human beings with arboviruses while taking a blood meal, inoculating virus with their saliva. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counter host hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses. Modulation of these crucial defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Using a murine model we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of West Nile virus (WNV) disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of… Expand
Mosquito Saliva Causes Enhancement of West Nile Virus Infection in Mice
TLDR
It is found that mice infected with WNV through the bite of a single infected Culex tarsalis mosquito exhibited 5- to 10-fold-higher viremia and tissue titers at 24 and 48 h postinoculation and faster neuroinvasion than mice given a median mosquito-inoculated dose of WNV by needle. Expand
Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity
TLDR
The potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease was explored by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Expand
Prior Exposure to Uninfected Mosquitoes Enhances Mortality in Naturally-Transmitted West Nile Virus Infection
TLDR
This research suggests that in addition to the seroreactivity of the host to virus, it is important to take into account the immune response to vector feeding, and is the first report that sensitization to arthropod saliva can exacerbateArthropod-borne infection. Expand
Immunization with Culex tarsalis mosquito salivary gland extract modulates West Nile virus infection and disease in mice.
TLDR
The results suggest that development of a mosquito salivary protein vaccine might be a strategy to control arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as WNV. Expand
Anopheles stephensi saliva enhances progression of cerebral malaria in a murine model.
TLDR
It is observed that mice exposed to mosquito feeding in tandem with the inoculation of sporozoites had higher parasitemias and an elevated progression to cerebral malaria, associated with elevated levels of interleukin-4 and interleucin-10, suppression of overall transcription in response to infection, and decreased extravasation of dendritic cells and monocytes. Expand
Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
TLDR
The effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Expand
Preparation of Mosquito Salivary Gland Extract and Intradermal Inoculation of Mice.
TLDR
Standardized methods to assess the impact of mosquito-derived factors on immune responses and pathogenesis in mouse models of infection are described and can help reveal fundamental mechanisms of interaction between pathogens, mosquito vectors, and the mammalian host. Expand
Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Mosquito Salivary Protein D7 Enhances Mortality from Subsequent West Nile Virus Infection via Mosquito Bite
Background Mosquito salivary proteins (MSPs) modulate the host immune response, leading to enhancement of arboviral infections. Identification of proteins in saliva responsible for immunomodulationExpand
Host Immune Response to Mosquito-Transmitted Chikungunya Virus Differs from That Elicited by Needle Inoculated Virus
TLDR
The data demonstrate contrasting immune activation in the response to CHIKV infection by mosquito bite or needle inoculation, and the significant role of mosquito saliva in these earliest events of chikungunya virus transmission and infection is highlighted. Expand
The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito saliva is associated with modulation of the host immune response.
TLDR
Mosquito saliva can impair the antiviral immune response, thus affecting viral infectiousness and host survival, andMounting evidence suggests that this is a mechanism whereby arbovirus pathogenicity is enhanced. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
Nonviremic transmission of West Nile virus.
TLDR
Nonviremic transmission of WNV between cofeeding mosquitoes is demonstrated and the status of dead-end hosts in the WNV transmission cycle is questioned, which may partly explain the success with which WNV established and rapidly dispersed throughout North America. Expand
Differential modulation of murine host immune response by salivary gland extracts from the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
TLDR
Using two medically important vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the effects of mosquito saliva on immune cells of host mice are examined and it is concluded that these two culicine mosquitoes differ in their host immunomodulatory activities. Expand
Potentiation of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus infection in mice by mosquito saliva
TLDR
Data indicate that mosquito mediated delivery of VSNJ exacerbates virus infection in mice older than 3 weeks and neutralizing antibody was detected in only 13% of inoculated mice. Expand
Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection.
TLDR
It is suggested that the response to virus is significantly different when an infection is initiated in the presence of mosquito salivary factors, and a possible mechanism for potentiation of viral infections initiated by the natural mosquito vector or in the absence of mosquito saliva is identified. Expand
Mosquito feeding-induced enhancement of Cache Valley Virus (Bunyaviridae) infection in mice.
TLDR
Enhanced CV infection in pregnant mice did not result in infertility or malformed pups, indicating that the mouse is not a suitable model to study CV-induced malformations and that replication of arboviruses in arthropod vectors may not be responsible for increased virulence of infections mediated by infected arthropods. Expand
Inhibition of the antiviral action of interferon by tick salivary gland extract
TLDR
Demonstration that tick SGE can promote virus replication by suppressing the action of IFN helps explain why ticks are such efficient vectors of arboviruses. Expand
Evaluation of methods to assess transmission potential of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes and estimation of mosquito saliva titers.
TLDR
Three traditional artificial transmission methods using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes are compared to aid in the design of transmission and pathogenesis studies involving arboviruses. Expand
QUANTIFICATION OF WEST NILE VIRUS IN VECTOR MOSQUITO SALIVA
TLDR
Saliva collected from 4 species of mosquitoes intrathoracically inoculated with West Nile virus provides a basis for comparing this component of vector competence and for determining the amounts of virus inoculated into vertebrates in experimental host competence studies. Expand
Vector Competence of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile Virus
TLDR
The potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus is evaluated, and laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus. Expand
Enhancement of tick‐borne encephalitis virus transmission by tick salivary gland extracts
TLDR
The results indicate that TBE virus transmission is enhanced by factor(s) associated with the salivary glands of feeding ticks, and that these factors may facilitate efficient transmission of TBEirus between infected and uninfected ticks even when they feed on hosts that have no detectable viraemia. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...