Potentially hallucinogenic 5‐hydroxytryptamine receptor ligands bufotenine and dimethyltryptamine in blood and tissues

  title={Potentially hallucinogenic 5‐hydroxytryptamine receptor ligands bufotenine and dimethyltryptamine in blood and tissues},
  author={J K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen and T Forsstr{\"o}m and Jarkko Tornaeus and Kristiina W{\"a}h{\"a}l{\"a} and Paula S. Kiuru and Aapo Honkanen and U-H. Stenman and Ursula Turpeinen and Antti Hesso},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation},
  pages={189 - 199}
Bufotenine and N,N‐dimethyltryptamine (DMT) are hallucinogenic dimethylated indolethylamines (DMIAs) formed from serotonin and tryptamine by the enzyme indolethylamine N‐methyltransferase (INMT) ubiquitously present in non‐neural tissues. In mammals, endogenous bufotenine and DMT have been identified only in human urine. The DMIAs bind effectively to 5HT receptors and their administration causes a variety of autonomic effects, which may reflect their actual physiological function. Endogenous… Expand
Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase Polymorphisms: Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for Study of Endogenous N,N,-dimethyltryptamine
All reported SNPs in INMT were amassed from genetic and biochemical literature and genomic databases to consolidate a blueprint for future studies aimed at elucidating whether DMT plays a physiological role. Expand
Metabolites of Tryptamine : Endogenous psychedelic neurotransmitters , and N , N dimethyltryptamine ( DMT ) in explaining a new pathway to produce Serotonin , Melatonin and hallucinations
Why naturally occurring psychoactive psychedelics, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5hydroxy-DMT (Bufotenine, HDMT) and 5-Methoxy-DMT (MDMT) occur naturally in the human body has very littleExpand
A possibly sigma-1 receptor mediated role of dimethyltryptamine in tissue protection, regeneration, and immunity
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is classified as a naturally occurring serotonergic hallucinogen of plant origin. It has also been found in animal tissues and regarded as an endogenous trace amineExpand
Biosynthesis and Extracellular Concentrations of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in Mammalian Brain
Results show for the first time that the rat brain is capable of synthesizing and releasing DMT at concentrations comparable to known monoamine neurotransmitters and raise the possibility that this phenomenon may occur similarly in human brains. Expand
N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an Endogenous Hallucinogen: Past, Present, and Future Research to Determine Its Role and Function
  • S. Barker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Front. Neurosci.
  • 2018
This report provides a historical overview of research concerning the endogenous hallucinogen N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), focusing on data regarding its biosynthesis and metabolism in the brainExpand
Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine
DMT appears to have limited neurotoxicity and other adverse effects except for intense cardiovascular effects when administered intravenously in large doses, and may be a useful experimental tool in exploring how the brain works and a useful clinical tool for treatment of anxiety and psychosis. Expand
A critical review of reports of endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans: 1955-2010.
A critical review of 69 published studies reporting the detection or detection and quantitation of these compounds in human body fluids addresses the methods applied and the criteria used in the determination of the presence of DMT, MDMT, and HDMT. Expand
Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT).
The synthesis of DMT is covered, as well as its pharmacology, metabolism, adverse effects, and potential use in medicine. Expand
Biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in a melanoma cell line and its metabolization by peroxidases.
A possible alternative metabolic pathway for DMT involving peroxidases that has not previously been described in humans is described and DMT and metabolites in a melanoma cell line are identified. Expand
Psychedelic N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and 5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Modulate Innate and Adaptive Inflammatory Responses through the Sigma-1 Receptor of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
The immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-D MT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues is demonstrated for the first time. Expand


Tissue distribution, metabolism and effects of bufotenine administered to rats
These experiments indicate that bufotenine is rapidly eliminated, in part by type A monoamine oxidase, after its injection into rats and that bufOTenine penetrates the blood-brain barrier poorly. Expand
Determination of potentially hallucinogenic N-dimethylated indoleamines in human urine by HPLC/ESI-MS-MS.
The bufotenine excretion of psychiatric patients was found to be higher than that of the somatic patients, and the dimethylated amines were found in significant amounts. Expand
Rabbit Lung Indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase
Cloning and expression of a rabbit lung INMT cDNA and cloning of the rabbit INMT gene represent important steps toward determination of the function and regulation of this mammalian methyltransferase enzyme. Expand
Urinary excretion of free bufotenin by psychiatric patients
Using GC-MS, it is shown that bufotenin is also excreted into urine in healthy humans as a free form and as a conjugate (R%istien and K&rkkainen 1979; Rg;isanen 1984). Expand
The presence of free and conjugated bufotenin in normal human urine.
In the present study the urinary excretion of free and conjugated bufotenin of ten healthy, drug free subjects was examined and the conjugate was tentatively identified as a glucuronide. Expand
Distribution of the hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in rat brain following intraperitoneal injection: application of a new solid-phase extraction LC-APcI-MS-MS-isotope dilution method.
A method for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric-mass spectrometric-isotope dilution (LC-APcI-MS-MS-ID) analysis ofExpand
Do classical hallucinogens act as 5-HT2 agonists or antagonists?
  • R. Glennon
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 1990
A review of the existing literature suggests that where a 5-HT2 mechanism has been implicated (such as in phosphoinositide turnover, contraction of certain smooth muscle, rat-paw edema, head-twitch behavior, discriminative stimulus effects, hyperthermia, platelet aggregation, and in various other effects), the classical hallucinogens are most likely acting via an agonist, or at least via a partial agonists mechanism. Expand
Nialamide, an MAO inhibitor, increases urinary excretion of endogenously produced bufotenin in man
Nialamide, an MAO inhibitor, was given per os to a normal man who volunteered in two separate trials, and his bufotenin excretion was followed by consecutive urine samples, and the excretion rose well above the values measured from the same test subject when not taking nialamide. Expand
Urinary excretion of bufotenin (N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is increased in suspicious violent offenders: A confirmatory study
Bufotenin excretion was not found to be associated with violence toward family members in the present study, and the results are in keeping with the earlier finding that violent offenders with paranoid personality traits have higher urinary levels of bufoten in than other violent offenders. Expand
The enzymatic N-methylation of serotonin and other amines.
  • J. Axelrod
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 1962
The serotonin methylating enzyme can N-methylate a variety of normally occurring compounds such as dopamine, normetanephrine, metanephine, epinephrine, tyramine, and octopamine as well as a varietyof foreign compounds suchAs ephedrine, amphetamine, aniline, normorphine,normeperidine and nornicotine. Expand