Potential of norethisterone enanthate for male contraception: pharmacokinetics and suppression of pituitary and gonadal function

@article{Kamischke2000PotentialON,
  title={Potential of norethisterone enanthate for male contraception: pharmacokinetics and suppression of pituitary and gonadal function},
  author={Axel Kamischke and Julia Dieb{\"a}cker and Eberhard Nieschlag},
  journal={Clinical Endocrinology},
  year={2000},
  volume={53}
}
Gestagens are known to suppress gonadotrophins in women and are currently also under investigation for the development of hormonal male contraceptives. The aim of the study was to assess the potential of norethisterone enanthate (NETE) for male contraception. 
A review of androgen-progestin regimens for male contraception.
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Androgens and Male Contraception
TLDR
New androgens and agents such as progestins and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs that synergistically suppress gonadotropic release are being studied in efforts to develop a safe, effective, and commercially viable hormonal contraceptive for men. Expand
Use of progestins in male contraception
Hormonal male contraception aims at suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia or at least to severe oligoasthenozoospermia, incompatible with the ability to induce a pregnancy. The generalExpand
Approaches to Hormonal Male Contraception
Of all the different experimental approaches and pharmacological methods tested so far for male contraception, hormonal methods come closest to fulfilling the criteria set out above (see Chap. 27).Expand
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TLDR
Combination treatment with NETE showed suppression of spermatogenesis comparable with results using testosterone esters in combination with GnRH antagonists or cyproterone acetate, but had more favorable injection intervals and better efficacy. Expand
Progress towards hormonal male contraception.
TLDR
The use of androgens is an essential part of all experimental approaches to hormonal male contraception and involves the suppression of gonadotrophins, leading to inhibition of spermatogenesis, but in contrast to East Asian men, only two-thirds of Caucasian men respond to such androgen-based regimens with the desired azoospermia, and thus additional agents are required. Expand
Male hormonal contraception.
TLDR
It is likely that injections or implants of androgens either alone or with progestins will become the first male hormonal contraceptive available within this decade. Expand
Norethisterone enanthate has neither a direct effect on the testis nor on the epididymis: a study in adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).
TLDR
Short-term NETE treatment has neither a direct effect on the testis nor on the epididymis in this nonhuman primate model and its contraceptive effects appear to be exerted exclusively through gonadotropin suppression. Expand
Male hormonal contraceptives.
TLDR
Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable testosterone, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible, and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. Expand
Contraceptive steroids influence the hemostatic activation state in healthy men.
TLDR
The effect of hormonal male contraception using long-acting testosterone esters with or without gestagens was significantly measurable within the hemostatic system, which may indicate an antithrombotic effect, whereas clinical consequences of an additional gestagen compound cannot be derived. Expand
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