Potential Impacts of Coyotes and Snowmobiles on Lynx Conservation in the Intermountain West

  title={Potential Impacts of Coyotes and Snowmobiles on Lynx Conservation in the Intermountain West},
  author={Kevin D. Bunnell and Jerran T. Flinders and Michael L. Wolfe},
Abstract Researchers and managers have hypothesized that coyote (Canis latrans) incursions into deep snow areas, facilitated by packed trails created by snowmobiles, may negatively impact lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations through interference or exploitation competition. In response to this hypothesis, federal agencies have limited snowmobile use within potential lynx habitat. We used aerial track counts and ground tracking to compare coyote activity in deep snow areas with and without… 

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes

Snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails, and coyotes preferred using snow mobile trails to access ungulate kills and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails.

Winter space use of coyotes in high-elevation environments: behavioral adaptations to deep-snow landscapes

It is shown that coyotes persisted throughout the winter and effectively used resources despite deep snow conditions in a high-elevation environment, suggesting coyotes used specific habitats differently than were available on the landscape.

Can restoring wolves aid in lynx recovery

The hypothesis that relatively low densities of snowshoe hares and the imperiled status of lynx may be partially due to an ecological cascade caused by the extirpation of gray wolves in most of the conterminous United States decades ago is examined.

Seasonal Variation of Coyote Diet in Northwestern Wyoming: Implications for Dietary Overlap with Canada Lynx?

It is found that there is little dietary overlap between coyotes and lynx during the winter months when lynx mainly fed on snowshoe hares and coyotes fed mostly on ungulates.

Living amidst a sea of agriculture: predicting the occurrence of Canada lynx within an ecological island

Carnivore populations are increasingly confined to reserves surrounded by anthropogenic development. The boundaries of ecological islands are risky because of habitat loss and human—carnivore

Potential influence of high‐elevation wind farms on carnivore mobility

Although the results indicate spatial partitioning, the edge habitat and compacted snow created by wind farm roads increased access for canids to high-elevation forest, which may increase competition for martens and lower population viability.

Footload influences wildlife use of compacted trails in the snow

Animals moving across snow surfaces sink to varying depths, increasing the energetic cost of travel. For ease of movement, animals may follow compacted trails created by sports such as snowmobiling

Snow conditions influence grey wolf (Canis lupus) travel paths: the effect of human-created linear features

The analyses suggest that, under natural snow conditions, wolves are limited in the fine-scale differences they can achieve along their travel paths, and anthropogenic activities drastically change the winter landscape.

Ecological factors influencing the spatial pattern of Canada lynx relative to its southern range edge in Alberta, Canada

Lynx occupancy was lower in areas with higher road densities and this effect was magnified in areas where coyote activity was highest, and the inclusion of these effects rendered the south–north pattern no longer viable.

Fine‐scale habitat selection by sympatric Canada lynx and bobcat

It is demonstrated that the lynx and bobcat select different resources at the second order, assorting along an environmental gradient in the study area, and that competition is unlikely to be occurring between the two species at finer scales.



The influence of snow on lynx and coyote movements: does morphology affect behavior?

The behavioral repertoire of coyotes reduced the morphological advantage of large feet possessed by lynx; however, overall sinking depths were still greater in coyotes.

Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance

Hares were the main prey of both species, and the distribution of hares chased and killed by lynx was similar to that predicted by habitat use, and Lynx hunting success was also similar among habitats.

Responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle

Coyotes and lynx are the two most important mammalian predators of snowshoe hares throughout much of the boreal forest. Populations of hares cycle in abundance, with peaks in density occurring every

Behavioural responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle

The pattern of changes in habitat use by coyotes and lynx paralleled that of snowshoe hares, and both concentrated their hunting activity in areas of high density of hares.

Population Ecology of Coyotes during a Fluctuation of Snowshoe Hares

Winter coyote densities on the 180-km2 study area near Rochester, Alberta, were directly related to hare abundance, and coyote association with open areas (nonhabitat for snowshoe hares), and their proximity to settlement, were inversely related to hail abundance over the course of the cycle.

Numerical responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle

Experimental results suggest that predation is a necessary factor causing these cycles of cyclic fluctuation of hare populations in the southwest Yukon, and delayed numerical responses of both generalist coyotes and specialist lynx were similar, and would contribute to the cyclic dynamics.

Prey switching and feeding habits of eastern coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare and white-tailed deer densities

Overall, high use of deer appeared to have been associated with increased vulnerability due to winter severity or, in the case of young fawns, inability to escape, and it is suspected that coyotes are forced to focus their hunting efforts on prey other than deer, regardless of density, owing to low vulnerability of deer.

Does coyote diet vary seasonally between a protected and an unprotected forest landscape?

Abstract In forested areas of the northern portion of their range, coyote (Canis latrans) populations are thought to depend mainly on areas disturbed by humans. Within a forested landscape, we

Hunting behaviour of a sympatric felid and canid in relation to vegetative cover

Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores

It is proposed that coyotes limit the number and distribution of gray foxes in Santa Monica Mountains, and that those two carnivores exemplified a case in which the relationship between their body size and local abundance is governed by competitive dominance of the largest species rather than by energetic equivalences.