Potent antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infection results in suppression of the seminal shedding of HIV

@article{Vernazza2000PotentAT,
  title={Potent antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infection results in suppression of the seminal shedding of HIV},
  author={Pietro Vernazza and Luigi Troiani and Markus Flepp and Richard W. Cone and Jody Schock and Felix Roth and Katia Boggian and Myron S. Cohen and Susan A. Fiscus and Joseph J. Eron},
  journal={AIDS},
  year={2000},
  volume={14},
  pages={117-121}
}
ObjectiveThe amount of HIV in semen likely influences infectiousness. Antiretroviral therapy decreases HIV-RNA in semen, but data on HIV concentrations in semen in a large cohort of men with suppressed HIV-RNA in blood is unavailable. MethodsMale patients with a treatment-induced reduction of HIV-RNA load in plasma below 400 copies/ml were asked to donate a semen and blood sample. Blood and seminal plasma were tested for the presence of HIV-RNA by the NucliSens method (detection limit 400… 
Quantitation of HIV-1 viral RNA in blood plasma and genital secretions.
  • S. Fiscus
  • Biology, Medicine
    Methods in molecular biology
  • 2005
TLDR
This chapter describes methods of collection, processing, and testing in blood, plasma, and male and female genital secretions for quantifying HIV RNA.
Timing of Intermittent Seminal HIV-1 RNA Shedding in Patients with Undetectable Plasma Viral Load under Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
TLDR
The results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen, which has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval as to be demonstrated by studies examining longer time intervals.
Detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma samples from treated patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma on a 2002–2011 survey
TLDR
It seems cautious individually to maintain the recommendations of safe sex and the recourse to ART, or at least to inform the couple of the residual potential risk, in serodiscordant couples desiring a child.
Analysis of HIV-1 viral load in seminal plasma samples.
  • A. Dunne, F. Mitchell, S. Crowe
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • 2003
Detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma samples from treated patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma
TLDR
This result justifies measuring HIV-1 RNA in semen before the ART process and suggests that a residual risk of transmission has to be mentioned to the patients who would like to have unprotected sexual intercourse.
Multicenter assessment of HIV‐1 RNA quantitation in semen in the CREAThE network
TLDR
Using two panels of prepared semen samples containing HIV‐1 the performances of protocols from 14 centers have been compared and the HIV load in seminal plasma could be a useful marker of the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.
Drug-Resistant HIV-1 in the Semen of Men Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy with Acute Sexually Transmitted Infections
TLDR
It is concluded that in the presence of suboptimal ART, sexually transmitted infections may enhance the spread of drug-resistant HIV-1.
Semen May Harbor HIV Despite Effective HAART: Another Piece in the Puzzle
TLDR
It is suggested that undetectable plasma HIV RNA means a lower risk of viral transmission through seminal fluid on a population level, but not necessarily at the level of the individual.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy does not completely suppress HIV in semen of sexually active HIV-infected men who have sex with men
TLDR
STIs and genital inflammation can partially override the suppressive effect of HAART on seminal HIV shedding in sexually active HIV-infected MSM.
Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Persistence of HIV RNA in Semen
TLDR
Inability to adhere to therapy was strongly associated with persistent shedding of HIV RNA in semen, and measures to improve adherence are urgently needed to reduce the sexual spread of potentially drug‐resistant HIV among subjects using antiretrovirals.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES
Quantification of HIV in semen: correlation with antiviral treatment and immune status
TLDR
The study showed that the concentration of HIV in semen, which was likely to be correlated with HIV infectivity, was a function of the immune status of the HIV‐infected individual and suggested that antiviral therapy may have reduced the concentration in semen.
Resistance of HIV‐1 to antiretroviral agents in blood and seminal plasma: implications for transmission
TLDR
The absence of genotypic changes consistent with protease inhibitor resistance in the semen, despite their presence in blood plasma, suggests the possibility of limited penetration of these agents into the male genital tract on incompletely suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the semen of men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
TLDR
In HIV-1-infected men who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and who have no detectable levels of viral RNA in plasma the virus may be present in seminal cells and therefore may be capable of being transmitted sexually.
High viral load in semen of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men at all stages of disease and its reduction by therapy with protease and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
TLDR
Longitudinal analysis of eight subjects who progressed to AIDS showed that seminal viral load increased in most cases, with viral load consistently higher in blood plasma than in semen, which has important implications for the biology of sexual transmission of HIV-1 and its potential reduction by antiretroviral therapy.
Detection and biologic characterization of infectious HIV-1 in semen of seropositive men
TLDR
The compatibility of epidemiologic data with the finding that significantly more HIV is recovered in semen from patients with advanced disease, suggests that HIV culture of semen samples may provide a useful surrogate marker to measure infectivity in clinical studies.
Effect of antiviral treatment on the shedding of HIV‐1 in semen
TLDR
Treatment-induced changes of HIV RNA concentration in blood are generally associated with a corresponding change in seminal HIV RNA, and potent antiretroviral therapy might reduce the spread of HIV-1.
Effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy on the HIV-1 viral burden in semen.
  • B. Gilliam, J. Dyer, J. Eron
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association
  • 1997
TLDR
Initiation of reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy effectively reduces shedding of HIV-1 in semen and may therefore reduce the spread of infection within populations.
Effects of disease stage and zidovudine therapy on the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in semen.
TLDR
HIV-1 is more commonly found in semen from men with advanced HIV-1 infection and seminal leukocytosis but can also be cultured from semen of men with neither of these conditions, and zidovudine therapy may decrease the prevalence and/or titer of seminalAIDS.
Sensitive method for the detection of infectious HIV in semen of seropositive individuals.
Detection of low HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma.
  • G. A. Schockmel, S. Yerly, L. Perrin
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association
  • 1997
HIV-1 viremia is a marker of choice for staging, prognosis, and monitoring treatment efficiency in HIV infection. Among the commercial assays, the Amplicor HIV Monitor (Roche, Basel, Switzerland)
...
1
2
3
...