Potency of progestogens used in hormonal therapy: Toward understanding differential actions

  title={Potency of progestogens used in hormonal therapy: Toward understanding differential actions},
  author={Janet P. Hapgood and Donita Africander and Renate Louw and Ramesh M. Ray and Julia Rohwer},
  journal={The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},

Progestogens as a component of menopausal hormone therapy: the right molecule makes the difference

Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone appear to be the safest options, with lower associated cardiovascular, thromboembolic, and breast cancer risks compared with other progestogens, and are the first-choice options for use in ‘special situations,’ such as in women with high-density breast tissue, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and risk factors for venous throm boembolism.

Progestogens exhibit progestogen-, promoter- and isoform-specific effects via the progesterone receptor

It is revealed that progestogen responses via PR-A are significantly more potent and less efficacious than those observed viaPR-B, and that this is unlikely due to differences in PR protein levels.

Fourth-Generation Progestins Inhibit 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 and Modulate the Biosynthesis of Endogenous Steroids

The results suggest that newer, fourth-generation progestins may exert both positive and negative physiological effects via the modulation of endogenous steroid hormone biosynthesis.

Progestogen safety and tolerance in hormonal replacement therapy

Short-term clinical studies, observational, and in animal and in vitro studies indicate that both micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are the safer progestogens with an acceptable metabolic profile.

Differential Glucocorticoid Receptor‐Mediated Effects on Immunomodulatory Gene Expression by Progestin Contraceptives: Implications for HIV‐1 Pathogenesis

It is reported that MPA, unlike NET and progesterone, represses inflammatory genes in human PBMCs in a dose‐dependent manner, via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), at concentrations within the physiologically relevant range.

Recent advances in structure of progestins and their binding to progesterone receptors

The aim of this review is to describe the basic structure of PR agonists and antagonists as well as the recent treatments for illness associated with the progesterone receptor.



Progestogens used in postmenopausal hormone therapy: differences in their pharmacological properties, intracellular actions, and clinical effects.

Differences in chemical structure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, affinity, potency, and efficacy via steroid receptors, intracellular action, and biological and clinical effects confirm the absence of a class effect of progestogens.

Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration

  • H. Kuhl
  • Medicine, Biology
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2005
This review comprises the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens used in contraception and therapy, with special consideration of hormone

The pharmacological profile of a novel norpregnance progestin (trimegestone).

Results show trimegestone to have a favorable pharmacological profile with potent progestomimetic activity, and to be not associated with any unwanted pharmacological effects.

All progestins are not created equal