Posttranslational Modifications of Proopiomelanocortin in Vertebrates and Their Biological Significance

  title={Posttranslational Modifications of Proopiomelanocortin in Vertebrates and Their Biological Significance},
  author={Akiyoshi Takahashi and Kanta Mizusawa},
  journal={Frontiers in Endocrinology},
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in… 

Figures from this paper

Functioning of the Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Derived Hormones: Melanocyte Stimulating Hormones and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Birds

  • Biology
  • 2021
In birds, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is processed to the following biologically active peptides: adrenocortical hormone (ACTH), â-endorphin, á-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), â-MSH, ã-MSH

Posttranslational Modification of Intercellular Messenger Systems

A series of review articles and original research papers on structural analysis or functional significance of posttranslational modification of/by intercellularmessengers, including hormonal messengers and gaseous messengers, in vertebrates and invertebrates: posttranslated hormones such as proopiomelanocortin, ghrelin, and hormonal receptors and effectors are included.

Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

Anti-Müllerian hormone is a gonadal cytokine with two circulating forms and cryptic actions.

Anti-Müllerian hormone is male specific during the initial stage of development, and theoretically should produce male biases throughout the body by adding a male-specific amplification of BMP/GDF signalling.

Differential Regulation of Gonadotropins as Revealed by Transcriptomes of Distinct LH and FSH Cells of Fish Pituitary

Cell-specific transcriptome analysis of double-labeled transgenic tilapia expressing GFP and RFP in LH or FSH cells yielded genes specifically enriched in each cell type, revealing differences in hormone regulation, receptor expression, cell signaling, and electrical properties.

α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone directly increases the plasma calcitonin level and involves calcium metabolism in goldfish

Calcitonin functions to promote scale regeneration resulting from the inhibition of bone resorption because calcitonin suppresses osteoclastic activity, the first to demonstrate the interaction between α-MSH and calcitonIn in teleosts.

A Pilot Screen of a Novel Peptide Hormone Library Identified Candidate GPR83 Ligands

The development of an approach for functional screening of novel potential hormones by expressing them in endocrine host cells competent for posttranslational processing and the production of mature hormones was demonstrated by including the preprohormones insulin and glucagon.

Phosphoglucomutase‐1 deficiency: Intrafamilial clinical variability and common secondary adrenal insufficiency

The clinical picture of PGM1 deficiency is variable among patients with the same mutation and genetic background, and ACTH deficiency should be considered in any PGM 1 deficient patient with hypoglycemia.



Post-translational processing of proopiomelanocortin in the pituitary and in the brain.

Evidence is presented on the cleavage specificities and structure of endoproteases which cleave neuropeptide precursors at pairs of basic amino acids and on the identity and mode of action of exopeptidases.

Proopiomelanocortin, a polypeptide precursor with multiple functions: from physiology to pathological conditions.

POMC has become a paradigmatic polypeptide precursor model illustrating the variable roles of a single gene and its various products in different localities.

Proopiomelanocortin processing in the pituitary, central nervous system, and peripheral tissues.

To yield biologically active products, precursors commonly undergo a series of highly organized posttranslational events, including selective proteolytic cleavage and other enzymatic modifications which take place within specific membrane-bounded compartments.

Identification of carp proopiomelanocortin-related peptides and their effects on phagocytes.

The immunomodulating effects of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-related peptides on phagocytic cells in carp were reported and synthetic MSHs and EPs on phagytic cells from carp head kidney were examined.

Peripheral Effects of Melanocortins

In this chapter, aspects of melanocortin function other than melanogenesis and steroidogenesis that appear to be at least partially a result of interaction with peripheral melancortin receptors are discussed.

Evolution of melanocortin systems in fish.

Nucleotide sequence and expression of three subtypes of proopiomelanocortin mRNA in barfin flounder.