Postoperative pulmonary complications: an update on risk assessment and reduction.

  title={Postoperative pulmonary complications: an update on risk assessment and reduction.},
  author={Gerald William Smetana},
  journal={Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine},
  volume={76 Suppl 4},
Postoperative pulmonary complications are common, serious, and expensive. Important predictors of risk are advanced age, poor health as assessed by American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and surgery near the diaphragm. Effective strategies to reduce risk include postoperative lung expansion techniques, preoperative intensive inspiratory muscle training, postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia, selective rather than routine use of nasogastric tubes, and laparoscopic rather than open… CONTINUE READING
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