Postoperative external and internal biliary fistulas, unassociated with distal bile duct obstruction: endoscopic treatment.

@article{Feretis1990PostoperativeEA,
  title={Postoperative external and internal biliary fistulas, unassociated with distal bile duct obstruction: endoscopic treatment.},
  author={Christos Feretis and B Kekis and N Bliouras and Naglaa Shaheen and D Daras and Basil Ch Golematis},
  journal={Endoscopy},
  year={1990},
  volume={22 5},
  pages={211-3}
}
Endoscopic drainage was applied in 14 patients with either external or internal (bile ascites) postoperative biliary fistulas. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and/or insertion of a nasobiliary tube or an endoprosthesis was found to be a safe and effective treatment, achieving closure of fistula in all patients. 

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