Posterior root–muscle reflexes elicited by transcutaneous stimulation of the human lumbosacral cord

@article{Minassian2007PosteriorRR,
  title={Posterior root–muscle reflexes elicited by transcutaneous stimulation of the human lumbosacral cord},
  author={Karen Minassian and Ilse Persy and Frank Rattay and Milan R. Dimitrijevic and Christian Hofer and Helmut Kern},
  journal={Muscle \& Nerve},
  year={2007},
  volume={35}
}
Continuous epidural stimulation of lumbar posterior root afferents can modify the activity of lumbar cord networks and motoneurons, resulting in suppression of spasticity or elicitation of locomotor‐like movements in spinal cord–injured people. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that posterior root afferents can also be depolarized by transcutaneous stimulation with moderate stimulus intensities. In healthy subjects, single stimuli applied through surface electrodes placed over the… 

Body Position Influences Which Neural Structures Are Recruited by Lumbar Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation

TLDR
It is hypothesized that body position influences the preferential stimulation of sensory or motor fibers and changes of root-fiber paths within the generated electric field when in the prone position increase the stimulation thresholds of posterior above those of anterior root fibers.

Common neural structures activated by epidural and transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation: Elicitation of posterior root-muscle reflexes

TLDR
The present results strongly corroborate the activation of common neural input structures to the lumbar spinal cord—predominantly primary afferent fibers within multiple posterior roots—by both techniques and add to unraveling the basic mechanisms underlying electrical SCS.

Recovery cycles of posterior root-muscle reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation and of the H reflex in individuals with intact and injured spinal cord

TLDR
Based on the substantial difference between intact and SCI individuals, PRM-reflex depression tested with paired pulses could become a sensitive measure for spasticity and motor recovery.

On the reflex mechanisms of cervical transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in human subjects.

TLDR
Evidence is presented that cervical transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation can engage the sensory pathways and transsynaptically converge on motor pools projecting to upper limb muscles, demonstrating the utility and sensitivity of cervical spinal stimulation for electrophysiological assessments and neurorehabilitation.

Influence of Spine Curvature on the Efficacy of Transcutaneous Lumbar Spinal Cord Stimulation

TLDR
Spinal flexion reduced the capacity of the stimulation to activate afferent fibers and led to the co-activation of motor fibers in the anterior roots, which recommended applying transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in body positions that allow individuals to maintain a neutral or extended spine.

Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

TLDR
A detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model are used to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation.

Interaction of transcutaneous spinal stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation in human leg muscles

TLDR
In some subjects, TMS could also eliminate the post-activation depression produced using two spinal stimuli, confirming that the interaction can extend to presynaptic spinal neurons.

Selectivity of upper limb posterior root muscle reflexes via cervicothoracic spinal cord stimulation

  • N. FlemingC. Taylor R. Reilly
  • Biology
    2022 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)
  • 2022
TLDR
The results suggest that some level of unilateral motor pool selectivity may be attained via altering stimulus intensity and location during cervicothoracic tSCS.
...

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