OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the concurrence of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) with eclampsia and to describe the obstetric, radiological, and critical care correlates. STUDY DESIGN This was a single-center, 2001-2010 retrospective cohort study of all patients with eclampsia who underwent neuroimaging via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) with or without contrast. RESULTS Forty-six of 47 of eclamptic patients (97.9%) revealed PRES on neuroimaging using 1 or more modalities: MRI without contrast, 41 (87.2%); MRI with contrast, 27 (57.4%); CT without contrast, 16 (34%); CT with contrast, 7 (14.8%); and/or magnetic resonance angiography/magnetic resonance venography, 2 (4.3%). PRES was identified within the parietal, occipital, frontal, temporal, and basal ganglia/brainstem/cerebellum areas of the brain. Eclampsia occurred antepartum in 23 patients and postpartum in 24 patients. Headache was the most common presenting symptom (87.2%) followed by altered mental status (51.1%), visual disturbances (34%), and nausea/vomiting (19.1%). Severe systolic hypertension was present in 22 patients (47%). CONCLUSION The common finding of PRES in patients with eclampsia suggests that PRES is a core component of the pathogenesis of eclampsia. Therapy targeted at prevention or reversal of PRES pathogenesis may prevent or facilitate recovery from eclampsia.