Post-traumatic symptoms after childbirth: What should we offer?

@article{Alder2006PosttraumaticSA,
  title={Post-traumatic symptoms after childbirth: What should we offer?},
  author={Judith Alder and Werner Stadlmayr and Sibil Tschudin and Johannes Bitzer},
  journal={Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  year={2006},
  volume={27},
  pages={107 - 112}
}
Most studies on post-traumatic stress symptoms after childbirth have focused on prevalence of and looked at etiological factors and predictors. While most authors agree that around 1.5% of the women develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and significantly more present with post-traumatic stress symptoms, the studies still lack a proper diagnosis using diagnostic interviews to validate the enhanced stress scores found in questionnaires. Also, some relevant predicting factors such as pre… 

Prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms

The findings indicated that the prevalence of traumatic birth experiences and post-partum PTSD were relatively high among Iranian women and obstetric and perinatal variables were independently the most significant contributing factors to women’s post- partum PTSD.

Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms After Childbirth: Does Ethnicity Have an Impact?

  • T. Paul
  • Psychology
    Journal of Perinatal Education
  • 2008
A preliminary relationship between the two variables, ethnicity and avoidance is demonstrated, and Hispanic women were found to be less likely to experience avoidance than Caucasian women.

Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth

The findings suggest that the prediction of PTSD following childbirth can be improved by focusing on variables derived from a current theoretical model of the disorder.

Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Identifying and treating perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder have important implications for maternal and neonatal health and combining P-PTSD research with current guidelines for PTSD is necessary to inform clinical practice.

Management of post traumatic stress disorder after childbirth: a review

Overall, there is limited evidence concerning the management of women with PTSD after childbirth, and debriefing and counselling are inconclusively effective while CBT and EMDR may improve PTSD status but require investigation in controlled trials before conclusions could be drawn.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Childbirth and Pregnancy Loss

Childbirth is a complex event that may lead to a variety of both negative and positive psychological responses in women and their partners, and factors influencing the grieving process and the emotional outcome include timing of the loss, the importance and meaning of pregnancy, and the difficulty in conceiving the pregnancy.

Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Caesarean Section: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Women with CS apparently have higher rates of PTSD as compared with women without CS, however, the susceptibility to PTSD appears to vary based on emergency/elective CS, study methodology, self-perceived traumatic birth, and country of study.

Anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy, perceived control and posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth: A longitudinal mediation analysis

Interventions targeting mechanisms enhancing perceptions/feelings of control should be offered to these women to prevent/minimize childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

References

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  • J. L. Reynolds
  • Psychology, Medicine
    CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • 1997
The author asserts that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after childbirth, and calls this variant of PTSD a "traumatic birth experience".

Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: a review.

Traumatic Stress after Childbirth: The Role of Obstetric Variables

In a sample of 1550 recently delivered women, traumatic stress after childbirth was studied in relation to obstetric variables and found that most women with a PTSD symptom profile were found in the normal vaginal delivery group (NVD), implying that a normal vaginal Delivery can be experienced as traumatic, but as an emergency cesarian section is not necessarily traumatic.

Childbirth and the development of acute trauma symptoms: incidence and contributing factors.

Women who experienced both a high level of obstetric intervention and dissatisfaction with their intrapartum care were more likely to develop trauma symptoms than women who received a highlevel of Obstetric intervention or women who perceived their care to be inadequate.

Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth.

Perceptions of low levels of support from partner and staff, patterns of blame and low perceived control in labour were found to be particularly related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms.

Effectiveness of a counseling intervention after a traumatic childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

A brief, midwife-led counseling intervention for women who report a distressing birth experience was effective in reducing symptoms of trauma, depression, stress, and feelings of self-blame.

Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth.

The pain experienced during the birth, levels of social support, self-efficacy, internal locus of control, trait anxiety, and coping were significant predictors of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after the birth.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Due to Childbirth: The Aftermath

A glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth: a cross sectional study.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in pregnancy and low treatment rates suggest that screening for this disorder should be considered in clinical practice.