Post-translational regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton: mechanisms and functions

  title={Post-translational regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton: mechanisms and functions},
  author={Carsten Janke and Jeannette Chlo{\"e} Bulinski},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
Half a century of biochemical and biophysical experiments has provided attractive models that may explain the diverse functions of microtubules within cells and organisms. However, the notion of functionally distinct microtubule types has not been explored with similar intensity, mostly because mechanisms for generating divergent microtubule species were not yet known. Cells generate distinct microtubule subtypes through expression of different tubulin isotypes and through post-translational… 

Tubulin Post-Translational Modifications and Microtubule Dynamics

The direct and indirect effects of post-translational modifications of tubulin on microtubule dynamics are focused on.

Investigating tubulin posttranslational modifications with specific antibodies.

Regulation of microtubule motors by tubulin isotypes and posttranslational modifications

The results show that tubulin isotypes and PTMs can govern motor velocity, processivity and microtubule depolymerization rates, with substantial changes conferred by even single amino acid variation, and that different molecular motors recognize distinctive tubulin ‘signatures’, which supports the tubulin-code hypothesis.

Regulation of tubulin glutamylation plays cell-specific roles in the function and stability of sensory cilia

Several PTM enzymes have been identified, including a carboxypeptidase in mice known as CCP1, which reduces polyglutamylation on the CTT of MTs, and causes cell-specific neurodegeneration when mutated.

Post-translational modifications of tubulin: their role in cancers and the regulation of signaling molecules.

This review provides an update on the role of microtubule PTMs in cancer aggressiveness, particularly regarding cell death, sensitivity to chemotherapy, cell migration, and invasion, and a mechanistic explanation of the molecular signaling pathways involved.



Tubulin post-translational modifications: encoding functions on the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton

Post-translational modifications of microtubules

Post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits diversify the outer and luminal surfaces of microtubules and provide a potential mechanism for their functional specialization.

Post-translational modifications regulate microtubule function

The αβ-tubulin heterodimer, the building block of microtubules, is subject to a large number of post-translational modifications, comparable in diversity to the intensively studied histone

Katanin regulates dynamics of microtubules and biogenesis of motile cilia

It is proposed that katanin preferentially severs older, post-translationally modified segments of microtubules, as well as several types of post-translational modifications on tubulin of internal and cortical micro Tubules.

Polyglutamylation of tubulin as a progressive regulator of in vitro interactions between the microtubule-associated protein Tau and tubulin.

Using an in vitro assay of ligand blotting, it is found that the microtubule-associated protein Tau interacts differentially with the diverse posttranslationally-modified isotubulins: its binding is mainly restricted to moderately-modified alpha- and beta-tubulin isoforms.

Stabilization and post‐translational modification of microtubules during cellular morphogenesis

The possible role of α‐tubulin detyrosination, a reversible post‐translational modification that occurs at the protein's C‐terminus, in cellular morphogenesis suggests that it plays an important role in generating cellular asymmetries.

Polyglutamylation: a fine‐regulator of protein function?

The discovery of a new family of enzymes that catalyse this modification has brought new insight into the mechanism ofpolyglutamylation and now allows for direct functional studies of the role of tubulin polyglut amylation.

Evolution of the multi-tubulin hypothesis.

  • P. G. WilsonG. Borisy
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1997
Recent studies probing the function of beta-tubulin isotypes in axonemes of insects suggest that tubulin structure, through interactions with extrinsic proteins, can direct the architecture and supramolecular organization of microtubules.

Microtubule polymerases and depolymerases.