Post-dispersal seed removal of Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides by insects and small mammals

Abstract

The journey of wind-dispersed seeds does not necessarily end when they land. Secondary dispersal and/or predation can positively or negatively affect the spread of invasive plants. Here we studied post-dispersal seed removal of nodding and plumeless thistle (Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides) in part of their invaded range in Pennsylvania, USA. The relative… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s11284-014-1224-4

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