Post concussion syndrome

@article{Ryan2003PostCS,
  title={Post concussion syndrome},
  author={Laurie M. Ryan and Deborah L. Warden},
  journal={International Review of Psychiatry},
  year={2003},
  volume={15},
  pages={310 - 316}
}
  • L. M. Ryan, D. Warden
  • Published 1 November 2003
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • International Review of Psychiatry
Individuals sustaining mild traumatic brain injuries often report a constellation of physical, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral symptoms referred to as post concussion symptoms (PCS). The most commonly reported post concussion symptoms are headache, dizziness, decreased concentration, memory problems, irritability, fatigue, visual disturbances, sensitivity to noise, judgment problems, depression, and anxiety. Although these PCS often resolve within one month, in some individuals PCS can… 
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This chapter will focus on discussing the current literature regarding distinctive and shared neuropsychiatric symptoms of PCS and CTE and what is known about their pathophysiology.
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TLDR
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Chronic Post-Concussion Neurocognitive Deficits. II. Relationship with Persistent Symptoms
TLDR
Cognitive deficits of adult patients who had persistent symptoms after a concussion were characterized and whether the original injury retains associations with these deficits after accounting for the developed symptoms that overlap with PTSD and depression was examined.
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A concussion is a physical injury to the head resulting in altered mental function, with expectation of recovery within 2–3 weeks. In a significant minority of cases the symptoms persist longer,
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES
Neurobehavioral Aspects of Postconcussive Symptoms after Mild Head Injury
TLDR
It is argued that the vague and aspecific nature of the postconcussion syndrome may have given rise to the controversy over this entity, but the many methodological inconsistencies in the experimental approaches to the syndrome have certainly enhanced the confusion about this issue.
Electrophysiological indices of persistent post-concussion symptoms
TLDR
Evidence of changes in brain function in individuals with persistent post-concussion symptoms is consistent with the position that the post- Concussion syndrome has a substantial biological, as opposed to a psychological, basis.
Postconcussion symptoms and daily stress in normal and head-injured college populations.
TLDR
The data support models which predict that postconcussion syndrome varies with stress, but the evidence for a reduction in the cerebral reserve capacity after head injury was not supported with this population of head-injured subjects.
Presence of post-concussion syndrome symptoms in patients with chronic pain vs mild traumatic brain injury
TLDR
Group comparison between patients with CP and MTBI on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire (RPCQ) found that PCS symptoms are not unique to MTBI, and may be seen in conditions such as CP.
Emotional, neuropsychological, and organic factors: their use in the prediction of persisting postconcussion symptoms after moderate and mild head injuries.
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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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TLDR
Five measures: HADS, post-traumatic amnesia, SOMC, PASAT, and RPQ are recommended for their predictive value and clinical utility and independent cross validation studies are required before these results can be generally applied.
Treatment of Post-Concussion Syndrome Following Mild Head Injury
TLDR
A review of controlled treatment outcome studies conducted over the past 2 decades in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Canada, and the United States suggests that early single session treatment can prevent the syndrome as effectively as traditional outpatient therapy.
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TLDR
A questionnaire-based investigation was carried out in 71 patients with mild head injury, using a heterogeneous item pool in order to study the interrelationships between traditional post-concussive complaints, cognitive problems, and more emotional and functional complaints.
The Postconcussional Syndrome: Social Antecedents and Psychological Sequelae
TLDR
The study consisted of a prospective investigation of 45 consecutively admitted patients who had sustained a mild head injury and found the emergence and persistence of the postconcussional syndrome are associated with social adversity before the accident.
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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology
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TLDR
Neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and neuropathological evidence that brain damage can occur in the absence of gross neurological deficits after mild injuries is reviewed.
A Review of the Postconcussion Syndrome
TLDR
More research is needed in all aspects of PCS, especially its neurophysiology and pharmacologic treatment, and relationships between neurophysiological changes and behavioral and neuropsychological changes are unknown.
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