Post‐feeding bubbling behaviour in fluid‐feeding Diptera: concentration of crop contents by oral evaporation of excess water

  title={Post‐feeding bubbling behaviour in fluid‐feeding Diptera: concentration of crop contents by oral evaporation of excess water},
  author={Jorge Hendrichs and Sylvia S. Cooley and Ronald J. Prokopy},
  journal={Physiological Entomology},
Abstract During long post‐feeding periods, adult tephritid flies (and apparently other non‐blood feeding Diptera and even Hymenoptera) engage in behaviour consisting of oral extrusion and aeration of liquid droplets of varying size (‘bubbling’), proboscis pumping, and occasional deposition of regurgitate on the substrate that is followed by subsequent re‐ingestion. Unlike evaporative cooling, which occurs in some insects when heat‐stressed, these regurgitation behaviours take place regularly at… 

Droplet bubbling evaporatively cools a blowfly

In the blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, infrared imaging revealed that as the droplet is extruded, evaporation lowers the fluid´s temperature, which, upon its re-ingestion, lowers the blowfly’s body temperature.

Feeding behavior ofRhagoletis pomonella flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Effect of initial food quantity and quality on food foraging, handling costs, and bubbling

Although thresholds triggering bubbling decreased with increasing temperature, higher temperature by itself did not result in bubbling behavior, suggesting that bubbling is not primarily a mechanism to achieve evaporative cooling as has been suggested but, rather, a behavior to eliminate excess water, thereby enabling engorged flies to continue feeding on diluted food sources.

“Bubbling” or Droplet Regurgitation in Both Sexes of Adult Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Fed Various Concentrations of Sugar and Protein Solutions

No behavioral differences were observed in the components of the bubbling behavior between the two sexes of adult Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Effect of High and Low Concentrations of Sugar Solutions Fed to Adult Male, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), on ‘Bubbling’ Behavior

Results comparing a high and low concentration of sucrose do not support the theory of elimination of excess water loss to concentrate dilute solutions or the “dilute solution hypothesis”.

Emesis or regurgitation? Crop response to the ingestion of insecticide‐bait blends in Anastrepha ludens

It seems that regurgitation is provoked by the noxious substance, in addition to the food (sugar) concentration, which may be separated from the normal regurgitated used to process a meal and may be considered as emesis.

The adult Dipteran crop: a unique and overlooked organ.

The diverticulated crop is a unique and overlooked foregut organ in the Diptera that affects many physiological and behavioral functions and is associated with behaviors unique to dipterans.

The Importance of Osmosis in Nectar Secretion and its Consumption by Insects

This work has shown that large flying insects feeding on nectar produce an excess of water which must be eliminated by evaporation and excretion, and Animals which utilise this attractively packaged and easily digested food source may have osmoregulatory problems when nectar concentrations do not match their water requirements.

Diets of erythritol, xylitol, and sucrose affect the digestive activity and gut bacterial community in adult house flies

Of the potential modes of action tested, physiological stress from excessive post‐feeding regurgitation seems the likeliest cause of death related to polyol consumption, but one cannot rule out a classical toxicological or biochemical mode of action from these results.

Effects of sucrose concentrations and fly age on feeding responses and survival of female and male western cherry fruit flies, Rhagoletis indifferens

The results suggest that sugar‐feeding behaviours and the energy invested in sugar ‘seeking’ by both sexes of R. indifferens should be the same throughout life.

Structural Differences in the Digestive Tract Between Females and Males Could Modulate Regurgitation Behavior in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

A structural study of the digestive system of the economically important fruit-fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, using optical, scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, plus a feeding assay finds sexual differences in some structures that apparently affect regurgitation.



Osmoregulation in a nectar‐feeding insect, the carpenter bee Xylocopa capitata: water excess and ion conservation

It is shown that the carpenter bee Xylocopa capitata Smith 1854 has an exceptionally low Na content, and Na homeostasis seems to depend on recycling almost all Na which enters the rectum, and the bulk of K resorption probably occurs passively in the ileum.

Convective and evaporative cooling in sawfly larvae.

  • R. Seymour
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of insect physiology
  • 1974

Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Nature: Location and Diel Pattern of Feeding and Other Activities on Fruiting and Nonfruiting Hosts and Nonhosts

Preferred sites for lek formation were the illuminated areas of tree canopies that were on or near fruiting host trees and that were protected by dense foliage from intense predation by Odonata and wasps.

Notes on the Process of Digestion in Tsetse-flies

It was found that when the salivary glands are removed from the living fly, it can still draw blood normally and may live long, but sooner or later large clots form in the narrow anterior portions of the alimentary tract, so that the fly can no longer feed and dies of starvation.

Time-activity budget of adult screwworm behavior (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

A time-activity budget of adult screwworm behavior was determined in an outdoor screened enclosure and the unusual behavior characterized as "bubbling" was interpreted as either thermoregulation or a nectar concentration.

Mechanisms of Body-Temperature Regulation in Honeybees, Apis Mellifera: II. Regulation of Thoracic Temperature at High Air Temperatures

It is concluded that during flight at high T A regulation of T H by evaporative cooling is the primary mechanism of reducing T Th .


Adult ticks were fed on human blood at 37 °C in a beaker covered with chicken skin to confirm that coxal fluid excretion occurs by a filtrationresorption mechanism.