Possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus

  title={Possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus},
  author={S. Sabeena and Parvati V. Bhat and V. Kamath and G. Arunkumar},
  journal={Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research},
  pages={429 - 435}
There is strong evidence to suggest vertical and horizontal modes of transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV), an established etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Infants, children, and adults can acquire both high‐risk and low‐risk infections by birth or by close contact even though HPV is mainly transmitted sexually. A thorough review of the literature was performed to assess the possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of HPV. 
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