Possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus

  title={Possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus},
  author={Sasidharanpillai Sabeena and Parvati Bhat and Veena Ganesh Kamath and Govindakarnavar Arunkumar},
  journal={Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research},
  pages={429 - 435}
There is strong evidence to suggest vertical and horizontal modes of transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV), an established etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Infants, children, and adults can acquire both high‐risk and low‐risk infections by birth or by close contact even though HPV is mainly transmitted sexually. A thorough review of the literature was performed to assess the possible non‐sexual modes of transmission of HPV. 
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Vertical transmission of HPV DNA from HPV infected mother to the neonate increased when the infant was delivered through an infected cervix, however, the absence of persistent infection in infants at 6 months after delivery may suggest temporary inoculation rather than true vertical infection.
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