Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D2 dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics.

  title={Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D2 dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics.},
  author={Dean F. Wong and Henry N. Jr. Wagner and Larry E. Tune and Robert F. Dannals and Godfrey D. Pearlson and Jonathan M. Links and Carol A. Tamminga and Emmanuel Broussolle and Hayden T. Ravert and A. A. Wilson and Juey Kong Toung and Jan Mal{\'a}t and J A Williams and Lorcan A. O'Tuama and Solomon H. Snyder and Michael J. Kuhar and Albert Gjedde},
  volume={234 4783},
In postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia, D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia have been observed to be more numerous than in patients with no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Because most patients with schizophrenia are treated with neuroleptic drugs that block D2 dopamine receptors in the caudate nucleus, it has been suggested that this increase in the number of receptors is a result of adaptation to these drugs rather than a biochemical abnormality intrinsic… 

Striatal D2 dopamine receptor characteristics in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients studied with positron emission tomography.

There are no general changes in D2 dopamine receptor Bmax or Kd values in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenics, but there may be a subgroup of patients with aberrant striatal D 2 dopamine receptor characteristics in vivo.

D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride.

The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was not supported by the present findings, and significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.

Pharmacological Manipulation of D1-Dopamine Receptor Function in Schizophrenia

In vivo D2 dopamine receptor density in psychotic and nonpsychotic patients with bipolar disorder.

It is concluded that, like schizophrenic patients, patients with psychotic bipolar disorder have elevations of D2 dopamine receptor Bmax values and that such elevations in affective disorder are more closely associated with the presence of psychosis than with mood abnormality.

Dopamine receptors and transporters in Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia

  • P. SeemanH. Niznik
  • Psychology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1990
Early evidence indicating abnormal D2 structure as well as a reduced link between D1 and D2 warrant a detailed study of the genes for these two receptors in schizophrenia.

D2 Dopamine Receptor Binding in the Basal Ganglia of Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenic Patients

The results suggest that alterations in striatal D2 receptor distribution and density do occur in schizophrenia, and possibly reflect wider disruptions in prefrontal-striatal-limbic circuits.

No D2 receptor increase in PET study of schizophrenia.

It is now possible to examine D2dopamine receptor binding in the brains of living human subjects by means of new brain-imaging techniques and radiolabeled receptor ligands and evidence of a slight increase in D2Dopamine receptors in a group of schizophrenic patients is reported.



Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia.

In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent

Bimodal distribution of dopamine receptor densities in brains of schizophrenics.

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia was examined by measuring the density of dopamine receptors in the postmortem brains of 81 control subjects and 59 schizophrenics from four different countries, providing direct evidence for two distinct categories of schizophrenia.

Binding of 3H-neuroleptics and 3H-apomorphine in schizophrenic brains

Direct evidence for some abnormalities in brain dopamine receptors in schizophrenia is obtained by measuring the specific binding of3H-apomorphine and 3H-haloperidol or 3H -spiperone to four regions of postmortem brains from schizophrenic patients.

Quantitative analysis of D2 dopamine receptor binding in the living human brain by PET.

Studies of [11C]raclopride binding indicate that clinically effective doses of chemically distinct neuroleptic drugs result in 85 to 90 percent occupancy of D2 dopamine receptors in the putamen of schizophrenic patients.


D2 dopamine and S2 serotonin receptors were imaged and measured in healthy human subjects by positron emission tomography after intravenous injection of 11C-labeled 3-N-methylspiperone and declined over the age span studied.

Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by positron tomography

The ligand 3-N-[11C]methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans, and holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptor in humans.

Substituted benzamides as ligands for visualization of dopamine receptor binding in the human brain by positron emission tomography.

  • L. FardeE. Ehrin G. Sedvall
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1985
In comparison with previously available ligands for PET-scan studies on central dopamine receptors in man, raclopride appears to be advantageous with regard to (i) specificity of binding to D-2 receptors, (ii) the high ratio between binding in dopamine-rich and dopamine-poor human brain regions, and (iii) rapid association and reversibility of specific binding.