Benign neurofibromas undergo sarcomatous transformation in approximately 5% of patients with neurofibromatosis type I. The clinical and radiologic diagnosis of sarcomatous change remains difficult. Positron emission tomography with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose is a method to assess increased glucose metabolism in malignant tissue such as sarcomas. In this case report, positron emission tomography accurately distinguished malignant from benign neurofibromas. The technique may be useful as a noninvasive screening tool for malignant transformation of neurofibromas.