Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy

@article{Kappes2011PositiveFA,
  title={Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy},
  author={Heather B Kappes and G. Oettingen},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
  year={2011},
  volume={47},
  pages={719-729}
}
article i nfo Positive fantasies allow people to mentally indulge in a desired future. Whereas previous research found that spontaneously generated positive fantasies about the future predict poor achievement, we examined the effect of experimentally induced positive fantasies about the future. The present four experiments identify low energy, measured by physiological and behavioral indicators, as a mechanism by which positive fantasies translate into poor achievement. Induced positive… Expand

Figures from this paper

Needs instigate positive fantasies of idealized futures
One form that mental time travel takes is fantasies about the future. Research to date has not established when people generate fantasies that depict an imagined future as particularly positive. WeExpand
Positive fantasies dampen charitable giving when many resources are demanded
Previous research found that positive fantasies about an idealized future yield low energy to pursue the fantasized future. We examined how positive fantasies about the resolution of a crisis (i.e.,Expand
Special issue article Needs instigate positive fantasies of idealized futures
One form that mental time travel takes is fantasies about the future. Research to date has not established when people generate fantasies that depict an imagined future as particularly positive. WeExpand
The power of prospection: mental contrasting and behavior change
People often immerse themselves in dreams and fantasies about a desired future. Though such future fantasies are pleasant, they do not necessarily lead to the effort required to attain the desiredExpand
Positive future-oriented fantasies and depressive symptoms: Indirect relationship through brooding
TLDR
Findings extend previous research on positive fantasies by suggesting brooding as a mechanism to explain when they are maladaptive by suggesting engagement in fantasies was indirectly associated with perceived difficulty anticipating likely positive future outcomes through brooding. Expand
Implicit theories moderate the relation of positive future fantasies to academic outcomes
We hypothesized and observed that the degree to which students endorsed entity theories – the view that intelligence is fixed rather than malleable – attenuated the affective benefits and exacerbatedExpand
Pleasure Now, Pain Later
TLDR
Results add to existing research on the problematic effects of positive fantasies on performance by suggesting that indulging in positive fantasies predicts problems in mental health. Expand
Positive fantasies predict low academic achievement in disadvantaged students
Unlike other forms of positive thinking (e.g., expectations), research finds that positive fantasies (experiencing one’ st houghts and mentalimagesaboutthefuturepositively)predictlowExpand
Future thought and behaviour change
While there is a growing body of research on free thoughts such as fantasies and daydreams, the question of whether and how fantasies lead to effortful action and successful performance has hardlyExpand
Mental Contrasting and Transfer of Energization
TLDR
Investigating whether physiological energization elicited by mental contrasting a desired future of solving a given task transfers to effort in an unrelated task suggests that mental contrasting of solving one task triggers energization that may fuel effort for performing an unrelatedtask. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 77 REFERENCES
The motivating function of thinking about the future: expectations versus fantasies.
TLDR
Positive expectations predicted high effort and successful performance, but the reverse was true for positive fantasies (experiencing one's thoughts and mental images about a desired future positively). Expand
Expectation, fantasy, and weight loss: Is the impact of positive thinking always positive?
We investigated the impact of expectation and fantasy on the weight losses of 25 obese women participating in a behavioral weight reduction program. Both expectations of reaching one's goal weightExpand
The processing of thin ideals in fashion magazines: A source of social comparison or fantasy?
The present study aimed to investigate the role of processing in women's responses to thin idealized images of beauty. A sample of 144 women viewed magazine advertisements containing either thinExpand
How to increase and sustain positive emotion: The effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves
A 4-week experimental study (N = 67) examined the motivational predictors and positive emotion outcomes of regularly practicing two mental exercises: counting one's blessings (“gratitude”) andExpand
The motivational and emotional consequences of considering positive or negative possibilities for an upcoming event.
  • C. Showers
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1992
TLDR
The hypothesis that attention to negative possibilities for an upcoming event can have advantages for performance in comparison with a more optimistic approach was examined in 2 studies and the cognitive process by which a negative focus may lead to positive behaviors was examined. Expand
Mental Contrasting and Goal Commitment: The Mediating Role of Energization
TLDR
Results imply that when expectations of success are high, mental contrasting provides the level of energy needed to commit to realizing desired futures. Expand
Emotional Consequences of Positive Daydreaming: The Moderating Role of Fear of Failure
The authors argue that the emotional consequences of positive daydreaming (i.e., spontaneously imagining the successful attainment of personal goals) depend on an individuals fear of failure.Expand
Reflection and Distraction Defensive Pessimism, Strategic Optimism, and Performance
This research concerns the interaction between performance strategies and imagery conditions. Defensive pessimists (DPs, who set low expectations, feel anxious, and rehearse possible outcomes) andExpand
Defensive pessimism: harnessing anxiety as motivation.
TLDR
Data are interpreted as evidence that the effects of low expectations and high anxiety on performance may be mediated by the strategies individuals use when approaching risky situations. Expand
The effects of a motivational general-arousal imagery intervention upon preperformance symptoms in male rugby union players
Abstract Objectives To investigate the efficacy of a motivational general-arousal based imagery strategy in modifying precompetitive symptom interpretations. Method A staggered multiple baselineExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...