Positive affect and learning: exploring the “Eureka Effect” in dogs

@article{McGowan2013PositiveAA,
  title={Positive affect and learning: exploring the “Eureka Effect” in dogs},
  author={Ragen T. S. McGowan and Therese Rehn and Yezica Norling and Linda Jane Keeling},
  journal={Animal Cognition},
  year={2013},
  volume={17},
  pages={577-587}
}
AbstractAnimals may experience positive affective states in response to their own achievements. We investigated emotional responses to problem-solving in dogs, separating these from reactions to rewards per se using a yoked control design. We also questioned whether the intensity of reaction would vary with reward type. We examined the response (behavior and heart rate) of dogs as they learned to gain access to different rewards: (1) food (2) human contact, and (3) dog contact. Twelve beagles… 
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