Positive Effects of the Multiple Negative: Explaining the Success of Black Professional Women

  title={Positive Effects of the Multiple Negative: Explaining the Success of Black Professional Women},
  author={Cynthia Fuchs Epstein},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  pages={912 - 935}
  • C. Epstein
  • Published 1 January 1973
  • Psychology
  • American Journal of Sociology
To be both black and a woman in American society has most typically meant being cumulatively disadvantaged with regard to positions of power and prestige. Holding these multiple negatively evaluated statuses has meant that black women have clustered at the very bottom of most strata. This paper explores the patterns leading to success of a small minority of black women who have managed to work in occupations of high rank. It points to the special factors which have not only canceled the… Expand
Jeopardy Not Bonus Status for African American Women in the Work Force: Why Does the Myth of Advantage Persist?
Black women's work force experiences are examined from a social constructionist framework, misperceptions of Black women are critiqued, explanations are developed that explain the unique status of African American women and recommendations are proposed to eradicate the discrimination and marginal status that Black women have endured in the work force. Expand
Black women in American society. A resource development perspective.
There are alarming parallels between black women's position in American society and their place in social science research and literature and two political and curricular efforts that might have been great sources of support for black women have not always come through. Expand
“Outsider Within” the Station House: The Impact of Race and Gender on Black Women Police
Most of the research on the effects of discrimination on occupational behavior has focused either on race or gender, ignoring the unique social location of black females. Recent feminist scholarshipExpand
Maternal Employment, Race, and Work Orientation of High School Girls
Socialization by mothers, a key determinant of daughters' work orientation, has generally been thought to operate via positive role-modeling. But socialization also occurs through negative modeling,Expand
Professional Black Men and Women: Attainment of Terminal Academic Degrees
Family background and personality characteristics of black professionals who held doctorates were examined for possible commonalities and sex differences. 30 black men and 34 black women from aExpand
Women managers and fear of success: A study in the field
Reported here is the first stage of a study designed to test Matina Horner's fear of success (FOS) hypothesis in the field of management. A matched sample of 18 male and 18 female executives wroteExpand
Women in Leadership From the Perspective of a Chinese-American Professional
The purpose of the chapter is to introduce changing roles of women over time, both in the settings of household and professional settings. As analyzed through the perspective of a Chinese-AmericanExpand
The Development of Female Role Ideology: Impact of Personal Confidence During Adolescence
Recent concern about the status of women in society has increased interest in the determinants of young people’s sex role ideology, particularly their ideology about the female role. One criticalExpand
The daughters of charlotte ray: The career development process during the exploratory and establishment stages of black women attorneys
This exploratory study examines the career development process of Black women in the legal field. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the factors that enable minority women toExpand
Implications and applications of recent research on feminine development.
Evidence is provided that changes in the feminine role pattern are a matter of urgency and will be beneficial to both sexes. Expand


The roles of American women-and the problems they cause-have long been the subject of both the popular press and the behavioral sciences. Currently they are the subject of furor by the women’sExpand
The Black Matriarchy
One recent winter, a black man from a St. Louis ghetto walked the streets looking-in 135 places-for a job. He didn't find one. A white sociologist, Dr. William L. Yancey, who went with him forExpand
Community Within a Community: The Professions
HIS paper is concerned with a little explored area of social theory: the structural strains and supports between a contained community and the larger society of which it is a part and on which it isExpand
The Ideology of Negro Physicians: A Test of Mobility and Status Crystallization Theory
Mobility and status crystallization theory are both based on the assumption that status discrepancies create strains and difficulties for the individual and lead to various forms of compensatoryExpand
The Economic Outlook and the Future of the Negro College.
The economic future of the predominantly Negro college as a seg ment of American higher education seems reasonably assured when viewed over the next decade. However, the outlook for particular groupsExpand
Negro Women Today and Their Education
It is true that volumes have been written about women. In the Teachers College Library, Columbia, the card catalogue has one and one-half drawers full of cards measuring 23 inches in thickness thatExpand
The Stages of a Medical Career
  • O. Hall
  • Medicine, Sociology
  • American Journal of Sociology
  • 1948
The members of the medical profession are heavily dependent on a set of formal institutions and informal organizations that functioned to control appointments to the medical institutions, to exclude or penalize intruders, to distribute patients, and to enforce rules and control competition. Expand
Brown Girl, Brownstones
The story of the coming of age of the daughter of Barbadian immigrants living in Brooklyn druing the Depression and the Second World War. She realizes that only by accepting the dreams of both herExpand
Crisis in Black and White
Find loads of the crisis in black and white book catalogues in this site as the choice of you visiting this page. You can also join to the website book library that will show you numerous books fromExpand
The Government Printing Office
• The official journals of government are produced at their 1.5 million square foot plant, the largest industrial facility in the District. There are significant issues of outdated plant andExpand