The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Adolescent (n=62, aged 15.6±1.1 years) and adult volleyball players (n=58, aged 24.9±5.3 years) were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and they performed a physical working capacity test, a 3-minute step test, the Wingate anaerobic test, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, and countermovement vertical jump with arm-swing test (CMJa). Adult players were taller and had a higher percentage of fat-free mass, better performance in cardiorespiratory power, anaerobic power, handgrip muscle strength and CMJa than adolescents (Cohen’s d>0.45). Positional differences in body height (centers were the tallest, whereas liberos were the shortest, p<.001) were found for both age groups. However, positional differences in body mass and fat-free mass were observed only in adolescents (centers were heavier than liberos, p<.05), whereas differences in CMJa were only in adults (hitters jumped higher than liberos, p<.05). Thus, the differences in body mass, fat-free mass and CMJa among playing positions in female volleyball were age-dependent. These findings might help coaches and trainers to develop position-specific training programs.