Portuguese Living Standards, 1720–1980, in European Comparison: Heights, Income, and Human Capital

  title={Portuguese Living Standards, 1720–1980, in European Comparison: Heights, Income, and Human Capital},
  author={Yvonne Stolz and Joerg Baten and Jaime Reis},
  journal={Development Economics: Regional \& Country Studies eJournal},
When and why did the Portuguese become the shortest Europeans? In order to find the answer to this question, we trace the trend in Portuguese living standards from the 1720s until recent times. We find that during the early nineteenth century average height in Portugal did not differ significantly from average height in most other European countries, but that when, around 1850, European anthropometric values began to climb sharply, Portugal's did not. In a panel analysis of 12 countries, we… 
Living Standards, Nutrition and Inequality in the Spanish Industrialisation. An Anthropometric View
This article presents an overview of the study of living standards in Spain from the perspective of anthropometric history and new data from recent research. The aim is to examine changes in
The human capital of Central-Eastern and Eastern Europe in European perspective
We trace the development of numeracy in Poland and Russia from the early 17th century onwards, and numeracy in Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania from the 18th century onwards. The fact that western
“Girl Power” in Eastern Europe? The human capital development of Central-Eastern and Eastern Europe in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries and its determinants
How did human capital develop in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and other east-central and eastern European countries? We trace the development of a specific human capital indicator during this
A golden age before serfdom? : The human capital of Central-Eastern and Eastern Europe in the 17th-19th centuries
Can the 16th and early 17th centuries in Poland‐Lithuania and some other east‐central European countries be characterized as a “Golden Age” in human capital? We trace the development of a specific
Real Wages since 1820
Wages are an important element of well-being, as they directly affect material living conditions. This chapter describes trends in real wages since 1820 for a wide set of countries derived with a
This study looks at human capital in Spain during the early stages of modern economic growth. In order to do so, we have assembled a new dataset on ageheaping and literacy in Spain for both men and
Disease and child growth in industrialising Japan: assessing instantaneous changes in growth and changes in the growth pattern, 1911-39
A significant and economically meaningful instantaneous effect of the infant mortality rate on child height at ages 6-11 for both boys and girls is found, suggesting that child morbidity was very important to the increase in stature during interwar Japan, but it also suggests that the emphasis placed on preventing child stunting in the first thousand days in the modern development literature may be misplaced.
The Amelioration of British West Indian Slavery: Anthropometric Evidence
An older view among historians, predominant until about 1970, held that British West Indian slave maintenance standards were significantly improved or ‘ameliorated’ from the later eighteenth century.


European Heights in the Early 18th Century
We estimate the height of various European populations in the first half of the 18th century. English and Irish male heights are estimated at c. 65 inches (165 cm), and c. 66 inches (168 cm)
Anthropometric Evidence on Living Standards in Northern Italy, 1730–1860
New estimates of mean stature indicate declining heights in Northern Italy from 1730 to 1860, corroborating recent findings of a deterioration in per capita GDP and real wages—though possibly calling
Patterns of economic retardation and recovery in south-western Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Ts there a specific Latin or south-west European pattern of economic modernization? A simple inspection of tables i and 2 and of figure i would suggest that there is. The special characteristic of
Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865
We revise previous estimates on average nutritional status in Britain during the industrial revolution. We find that average nutritional status declined substantially throughout the period 1740–1865,
Long-Term Trends in Height in Rural Eastern Andalusia (1750-1950)
This work aims to enhance the period on which modern Spanish anthropometric history has developed its analysis. Data on height from adult males born between the mid 18th century and mid 20th century
New Evidence and New Methods to Measure Human Capital Inequality Before and During the Industrial Revolution: France and the US in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries
We explore pre- and early industrial inequality of numeracy using the age heaping method and anthropometric strategies. For France, we map differential numeracy between the upper and lower segments
Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe
An econometric model of economic development is estimated with data from leading European countries between 1300 and 1800. The model explores the impact of population, enclosure, empire,
Growth Effects of 19th Century Mass Migrations: “Fome Zero” for Brazil
We estimate a long-run trend of Brazilian human capital that extends back to the very beginning of the 18th century. With new data on selective immigration during the era of mass migrations at the
The Effects on Stature of Poverty, Family Size and Birth Order: British Children in the 1930s
The trade-off between the quality and the number of children in the family at a time when genuine poverty still existed in Britain is examined, which indicates that the effects of childhood conditions on height persisted into adulthood.