The effects of occlusive portal vein thrombosis (PVT) on the survival of patients with cirrhosis are unknown. This was a retrospective cohort study at a single center. The main exposure variable was the presence of occlusive PVT. The primary outcome measure was time-dependent mortality. A total of 3295 patients were analyzed, and 148 (4.5%) had PVT. Variables independently predictive of mortality from the time of liver transplant evaluation included age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.03], Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.11), hepatitis C (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68), and PVT (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.97-3.51). Variables independently associated with the risk of mortality from the time of liver transplant listing included age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), transplantation (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81), MELD (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10), hepatitis C (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90), and PVT (1.99; 95% CI, 1.25-3.16). The presence of occlusive PVT at the time of liver transplantation was associated with an increased risk of death at 30 days (odds ratio, 7.39; 95% CI, 2.39-22.83). In conclusion, patients with cirrhosis complicated by PVT have an increased risk of death.