Porphyrin and Nonporphyrin Photosensitizers in Oncology: Preclinical and Clinical Advances in Photodynamic Therapy

  title={Porphyrin and Nonporphyrin Photosensitizers in Oncology: Preclinical and Clinical Advances in Photodynamic Therapy},
  author={Aisling E. O'Connor and William M. Gallagher and Annette T. Byrne},
  journal={Photochemistry and Photobiology},
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now a well‐recognized modality for the treatment of cancer. While PDT has developed progressively over the last century, great advances have been observed in the field in recent years. The concept of dual selectivity of PDT agents is now widely accepted due to the relative specificity and selectivity of PDT along with the absence of harmful side effects often encountered with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Traditionally, porphyrin‐based photosensitizers have… 

Recent advances in drug discovery of phototherapeutic non-porphyrinic anticancer agents.

Photosensitizer nanocarriers modeling for photodynamic therapy applied to dermatological diseases

A mathematical model of PS distribution in tumor tissue using NPs that takes into account parameters related to nanoparticles binding is presented, which allows us to calculate the temporal evolution of reactive oxygen species according to PS distribution calculated previously from NPs profile.

Nanodrug applications in photodynamic therapy.

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The future path on the research of new photosensitizers with enhanced tumor selectivity, featuring the improvement of PDT effectiveness, has been addressed and new applications of PDT have been covered.

Advance in Photosensitizers and Light Delivery for Photodynamic Therapy

Advanced light delivery system is shown to establish successful clinical applications of PDT andPhtodynamic efficiency of the PSs with light delivery was investigated in vitro and/or in vivo.

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Three new osmium‐based photosensitizers were synthesized and their photophysical and photobiological attributes determined, which translated to good in vivo efficacy of TLD1829 in a subcutaneous murine colon cancer model.

Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment and Diagnosis of Cancer–A Review of the Current Clinical Status

A general overview of the clinical applications of PDT in cancer, including the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is provided, and combination of PDT with other therapy modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and immunotherapy will be emphasized, since such approaches seem to be promising in terms of enhancing effectiveness against tumor.

Basic Studies in Cancer PDT

It is likely that PDT will continue to be used as both a solitary treatment modality and in combination with other strategies, such as hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy-generated vaccines.

Overcoming barriers in photodynamic therapy harnessing nano-formulation strategies.

A systematic summary of recent advances in the fabrication of photosensitizers and the design of therapy strategies to overcome barriers in PDT is presented and nanocomposites excited by various light sources are applied in the PDT of deep-seated tumors.



Porphyrins in photodynamic therapy - a search for ideal photosensitizers.

This review highlights various porphyrinoid sensitizers reported till date and their photosensitizing ability both in vitro and in vivo studies and the urgent need for developing ideal photosensitizer for PDT is highlighted.

Photodynamic therapy: the development of new photosensitisers.

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    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • 2008
In this review, recent developments in photosensitiser families are discussed with respect to in vitro performance indicators and to potential application in oncology.

Photodynamic Therapy and the Development of Metal-Based Photosensitisers

This Review highlights the key photosensitisers investigated, with particular attention paid to the metallated and non-metallated cyclic tetrapyrrolic derivatives that have been studied in vitro and in vivo; those which have entered clinical trials; and those that are currently in use in the clinic for PDT.

Porphycenes: facts and prospects in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

Porphycene derivatives show higher absorption than porphyrins in the red spectral region, fast uptake and diverse subcellular localizations, and photophysical and photobiological properties of porphycenes make them excellent candidates as PSs, very useful for PDT of cancer and other biomedical applications.

Photodynamic therapy: a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer.

Vascular and cellular targeting for photodynamic therapy.

Current studies of vascular and cellular targeting of PDT are summarized after more than 30 years of intensive efforts.


The aim of the present review was to provide a general overview of the art and science of photodynamic therapy and to highlight some of the issues and recent developments in further advancing this modality of treatment.

The advantages of aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in dermatology

An overview of the current and potential applications of ALA-based PDT is presented, with emphasis on the advantages of the technique that make it especially suitable for skin conditions and the problem areas on which future research should be focussed.

Milestones in the development of photodynamic therapy and fluorescence diagnosis.

  • A. JuzenieneQ. PengJ. Moan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • 2007
Basic aspects of PDT will be focused on, all important for the route of development leading PDT to its present state: early work on hematoporphyrin and hematocarbon derivative, second and third generation photosensitizers, 5-aminolevulinic acid and its derivatives, oxygen and singlet oxygen.