We examined the effects of porcine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) on the in vitro development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for the first time. We evaluated the effects of pGM-CSF on SCNT-derived blastocyst formation and investigated gene expression. A total of 522 cloned embryos in 6 replicates were treated with 10 ng/ml pGM-CSF during in vitro culture (IVC). This treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased blastocyst formation and total cell number in blastocysts compared with the control (12.3% and 41.4 vs. 9.0% and 34.7, respectively). However, there was no effect on cleavage rate. The numbers of cells in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were significantly higher in the pGM-CSF treatment group (6.0 and 43.0, respectively) compared with the control (4.4 and 31.9, respectively). Treatment with 10 ng/ml pGM-CSF significantly increased POU5F1 and Cdx2 mRNA expression in blastocysts. In addition, Bcl-2, Dnmt1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA expression were upregulated in blastocysts in the pGM-CSF supplemented group compared with the control. These results suggest that pGM-CSF improves the quality and developmental viability of porcine SCNT embryos by regulating transcription factor expression.