OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine whether the LIN28B gene is differentially distributed in the Mediterranean region through the analysis of the allele distribution of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely rs7759938, rs314277, and rs221639, in 24 populations. These SNPs have been recently related to the age at menarche, pubertal height growth, peripubertal body mass index, levels of prenatal testosterone exposure, and cancer survival. METHODS A total of 1,197 DNA samples were genotyped. The allele frequencies were used to determine the relationship between populations, with data from the 1000 Genomes Project being used for external comparisons. The genotype distributions and the population structure between populations and groups of populations were determined. RESULTS The population results indicate a significant degree of variation (FST = 0.043, P < 0.0001). Allele frequencies show significant differences among populations. A hierarchical variance analysis is consistent with a primary differentiation between populations on the North and South coasts of the Mediterranean. This difference is especially evident in the unexpected distribution of the SNP rs221639, which shows one of the highest FST (11.5%, P < 0.0001) values described in the Mediterranean region thus far. CONCLUSION The population differentiation and the structuring of the genetic variance, in agreement with previous studies, indicate that the SNPs in question are good tools for the study of human populations, even at a microgeographic level. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:905-912, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc.