Population variability of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A concentrations in spot urine samples versus 24- or 48-h collections


Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three… (More)
DOI: 10.1038/jes.2012.52

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