Population trends associated with skin peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis in Australian frogs

  title={Population trends associated with skin peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis in Australian frogs},
  author={Douglas C. Woodhams and Louise A. Rollins-Smith and Cynthia Carey and Laura K. Reinert and Michael J. Tyler and Ross A. Alford},
Many species of amphibians in the wet tropics of Australia have experienced population declines linked with the emergence of a skin-invasive chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. An innate defense, antimicrobial peptides produced by granular glands in the skin, may protect some species from disease. Here we present evidence that supports this hypothesis. We tested ten synthesized peptides produced by Australian species, and natural peptide mixtures from five Queensland rainforest… 
Skin peptide defences of New Zealand frogs against chytridiomycosis
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Skin peptides protect juvenile leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) against chytridiomycosis
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Resistance to chytridiomycosis varies among amphibian species and is correlated with skin peptide defenses
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Immune Defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a Fungus Linked to Global Amphibian Declines, in the South African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis
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Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines.
Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline
A longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions, and finds a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation.
Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae.
Ecology of Chytridiomycosis in Rainforest Stream Frog Assemblages of Tropical Queensland
The data indicate that at the landscape level, environmental conditions have strong effects on host-pathogen dynamics and interact with species-specific behavior or immune function and may be important underlying determinants of chytridiomycosis epizootics and emergence.
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Collection of frogs from populations experiencing mortality events at eight sites were found to have characteristic lesions of chytrid fungus infection (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), which included diffuse epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and colonization of the keratinized layers of the epidermis by sporangia of the chyTrid.
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The present experiments are the first combined in vivo and in vitro demonstrations of the function of peptide antibiotics in a vertebrate.
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It is found that thermal environment affects the progress of the disease, and that housing frogs Litoria chloris at an environmental temperature of 37 degrees C for less than 16 h can clear them of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.
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The secretion of the skin glands of the ‘orange‐thighed frog’ Litoria xanthomera contains seven peptides, one of which is the known hypotensive peptide caerulein, and two new peptides that show antibacterial properties.