Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

@article{Allentoft2015PopulationGO,
  title={Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia},
  author={Morten E. Allentoft and Martin Sikora and Karl-G{\"o}ran Sj{\"o}gren and Simon Rasmussen and Morten Rasmussen and Jesper Stenderup and Peter de Barros Damgaard and Hannes Schroeder and Torbj{\"o}rn Ahlstr{\"o}m and Lasse Vinner and Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas and Ashot Margaryan and Thomas F.G. Higham and David Chivall and Niels Lynnerup and Lise Harvig and Justyna Baron and Philippe Della Casa and Paweł Dąbrowski and Paul R. Duffy and Alexander Ebel and Andrey Epimakhov and Karin Margarita Frei and Mirosław Furmanek and Tomasz Gralak and Andrey Gromov and Stanisław Gronkiewicz and Gisela Grupe and Tam{\'a}s Hajdu and Radosław Jarysz and Valeriy I. Khartanovich and Alexander Anatolyevich Khokhlov and Vikt{\'o}ria Kiss and Jan Kol{\'a}ř and Aivar Kriiska and Irena Lasak and Cristina Longhi and George C. McGlynn and Algimantas Merkevi{\vc}ius and Inga Merkytė and Mait Metspalu and Ruzan Mkrtchyan and Vyacheslav Moiseyev and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Paja and Gy{\"o}rgy P{\'a}lfi and Dalia D. Pokutta and Łukasz Pospieszny and Trevor D. Price and Lehti Saag and Mikhail V. Sablin and Natal’ya Shishlina and Vaclav Smrcka and Vasilii Soenov and Vajk Szever{\'e}nyi and Guszt{\'a}v T{\'o}th and Synaru V. Trifanova and Liivi Varul and Magdolna Vicze and Levon Yepiskoposyan and V. Zhitenev and Ludovic Orlando and Thomas Sicheritz-Pont{\'e}n and S{\o}ren Brunak and Rasmus Nielsen and Kristian Kristiansen and Eske Willerslev},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2015},
  volume={522},
  pages={167-172}
}
The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000–1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. [] Key Method We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo…
R1A SUBCLADES AND BRONZE AGE MIGRATIONS ON THE EURASIAN STEPPES
Until recently, our knowledge of the prehistoric world has been blur in many aspects. It was unclear, whether if migrations, conquest, or merely cultural diffusion led from one culture to the other.
Paleogenomics of the prehistory of Europe: human migrations, domestication and disease
Abstract A substantial portion of ancient DNA research has been centred on understanding European populations’ origin and evolution. A rchaeological evidence has already shown that the peopling of
Human evolution: Ancient DNA steps into the language debate
TLDR
Analysis of genome-wide data from 69 Europeans reveals that closely related groups of early farmers — different from indigenous hunter-gatherers — appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain at around 8,000 to 7,000 years ago, lending support to the theory of a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes
TLDR
The genomes of 137 ancient and 502 modern human genomes illuminate the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age and document the replacement of Indo-European speakers of West Eurasian ancestry by Turkic-speaking groups of East Asian ancestry.
The Stone Age Plague: 1000 years of Persistence in Eurasia
TLDR
Six new Y. pestis genomes spanning from the European Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (LNBA) dating from 4,800 to 3,700 BP are presented and it is shown that all currently investigated LNBA strains form a single genetic clade in the Y. pests phylogeny that appears to be extinct.
Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome
TLDR
The first ancient whole genomes from Ireland, including two at high coverage, demonstrate that large-scale genetic shifts accompanied both Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions, and suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.
Untangling Neolithic and Bronze Age mitochondrial lineages in South Asia
TLDR
This study shows how a detailed mtDNA phylogeographic approach, combining both modern and ancient variation, can provide evidence of population movements, even in a scenario of strong male bias such as in the case of the Bronze Age Steppe dispersals.
Genes mirror migrations and cultures in prehistoric Europe – a population genomic perspective
TLDR
Findings show that culture and lifestyle were major determinants of genomic differentiation and similarity in pre-historic Europe rather than geography as is the case today.
Genes mirror migrations and cultures in prehistoric Europe-a population genomic perspective.
Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe
TLDR
Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component, and finds evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 83 REFERENCES
Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory
TLDR
A 5,000-year transect of human genomes sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields are analysed, suggesting genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability.
Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people
TLDR
The data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization.
Modern humans' paleogenomics and the new evidences on the European prehistory
TLDR
How paleogenomics is providing new insights into a wide range of topics such as demography, undetected migrations, mating strategies or adaptive processes of prehistoric European populations is explained.
Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European
TLDR
An approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, is sequenceed to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome, providing evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.
Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
TLDR
The findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.
DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China
TLDR
The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans.
Origins and Genetic Legacy of Neolithic Farmers and Hunter-Gatherers in Europe
TLDR
The results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.
The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages
This book is the first synthesis of the archaeology of the Urals and Western Siberia. It presents a comprehensive overview of the late prehistoric cultures of these regions, which are of key
...
...