Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of Novelty Seeking

@article{Benjamin1996PopulationAF,
  title={Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of Novelty Seeking},
  author={Jonathan Benjamin and Lin Li and Chavis Patterson and Benjamin D. Greenberg and Dennis L. Murphy and Dean Hamer},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
  year={1996},
  volume={12},
  pages={81-84}
}
Twin and adoption studies suggest that 30 to 60% of the variance in many personality traits is due to inherited factors. However, there is little knowledge of the number or identity of the responsible genes, how they differ between individuals, or how their gene products interact with the developing brain and with environmental and experiential factors to generate the complex blend of attitudes and actions that comprise human temperament1. In the accompanying paper, Ebstein et al.2 have found a… 

Genes for personality traits: implications for psychopathology.

TLDR
In methodically similar but independent studies of 124 Israeli and 315 American normal volunteers, an association was found between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (D4DR) and the personality trait of novelty-seeking and the 5-HTT polymorphism was associated with anxiety- and depression-related personality traits.

Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality traits

TLDR
The dopamine D4 receptor gene is probably not of importance to the different personality dimensions as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, but there was a tendency in the direction of the proposed association.

Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene and Personality

TLDR
The data do not provide evidence for a role of DRD4 exon III and the –521C/T polymorphism in the modulation of novelty seeking and extraversion, and these findings are in line with several earlier studies which have failed to replicate the initial association results.

Genetic variants implicated in personality: A review of the more promising candidates

  • J. SavitzR. Ramesar
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • 2004
TLDR
Both the theoretical and the empirical evidence implicating specific loci—in particular SERT and DRD4—in the development of personality is evaluated, and the existence of a genuine effect is argued for.

Human novelty-seeking personality traits and dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms: a twin and genetic association study.

TLDR
No significant associations were observed between novelty-seeking or positive emotional experience and these D4DR polymorphisms, which seems unlikely to represent measurement or genetic differences across studies, although environmental differences may be possible.

Personality traits and dopamine receptors (D2 and D4): linkage studies in families of alcoholics.

TLDR
Comparisons were made between selected MPQ traits measuring the affective dimension (negative affectivity, stress reaction, alienation, and well-being) and evidence favoring linkage between the D2 and D4 receptor loci and these MPZ traits is found, with stronger evidence being seen for the D 2 polymorphisms.

Association Between Novelty Seeking and Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Exon III Polymorphism

TLDR
It is suggested that demographic factors might be important to replicate the association between DRD4 exon III polymorphism and novelty seeking and the noise generated by methodological differences may be sufficient to obscure the small effect of DRD 4 on novelty seeking.

The association between the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters and personality traits

TLDR
The main aims are to highlight that the study of candidate genes provides a fruitful ground for the identification of the biological underpinnings of personality without, though, reaching a general consensus about the strength of this relationship, and to outline that the research in personality genetics should be expanded to provide a clearer picture of the heritability of personality traits.
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TLDR
This work provides the first replicated association between a specific genetic locus involved in neuro-transmission and a normal personality trait, the 7 repeat allele in the locus for the D4 dopamine receptor gene (D4DR).

Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine

TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Genetic analysis of data from 2,680 adult Australian twin pairs demonstrated significant genetic contributions to variation in scores on the Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, and Reward Dependence scales of Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, demonstrating each provide incomplete descriptions of the structure of heritable personality differences.

Dopamine‐related personality traits in Parkinson's disease

TLDR
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TLDR
The statistical basis for this "transmission test for linkage disequilibrium" (transmission/disequilibrium test] is described and the relationship of this test to tests of cosegregation that are based on the proportion of haplotypes or genes identical by descent in affected sibs is shown.

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TLDR
The human dopamine D4 receptor contains a novel polymorphism within the putative third cytoplasmic loop of the protein, characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48-bp repeats in the gene.