Populating the periodic table: Nucleosynthesis of the elements

  title={Populating the periodic table: Nucleosynthesis of the elements},
  author={Jennifer A. Johnson},
  pages={474 - 478}
Elements heavier than helium are produced in the lives and deaths of stars. This Review discusses when and how the process of nucleosynthesis made elements. High-mass stars fuse elements much faster, fuse heavier nuclei, and die more catastrophically than low-mass stars. The explosions of high-mass stars as supernovae release elements into their surroundings. Supernovae can leave behind neutron stars, which may later merge to produce additional heavy elements. Dying low-mass stars throw off… Expand
Direct anthropic bound on the weak scale from supernovæ explosions
Core-collapse supernovae presumably explode because trapped neutrinos push the material out of the stellar envelope. This process is directly controlled by the weak scale $v$: we argue that supernovaExpand
The periodic table and the physics that drives it
Mendeleev’s introduction of the periodic table of elements is one of the most important milestones in the history of chemistry, as it brought order into the known chemical and physical behaviour ofExpand
An evolutionary system of mineralogy. Part I: Stellar mineralogy (>13 to 4.6 Ga)
A preliminary catalog of 41 distinct natural kinds of stellar minerals, representing 22 official International Mineralogical Association mineral species, as well as 2 as yet unapproved crystalline phases and 3 kinds of non-crystalline condensed phases not codified by the IMA are presented. Expand
Gaseous atomic nickel in the coma of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov.
Spectroscopic observations of atomic nickel vapour in the cold coma of 2I/Borisov at a heliocentric distance of 2.322 astronomical units are reported, in line with the recent identification of this atom-as well as iron-in the cold comae of Solar System comets17. Expand
Electron Densities and Nitrogen Abundances in Ionized Gas Derived Using [N ii] Fine-structure and Hydrogen Recombination Lines
We present a method for deriving the electron density of ionized gas using the ratio of the intensity of the [NII] 205um line to that of Hydrogen radio recombination lines (RRL). We use this methodExpand
Chemical Cartography with APOGEE: Multi-element abundance ratios
We map the trends of elemental abundance ratios across the Galactic disk, spanning R = 3-15 kpc and midplane distance |Z|= 0-2 kpc, for 15 elements in a sample of 20,485 stars measured by theExpand
Physical origin of chemical periodicities in the system of elements
Abstract The Periodic Law, one of the great discoveries in human history, is magnificent in the art of chemistry. Different arrangements of chemical elements in differently shaped Periodic TablesExpand
New molecular species at redshift z = 0.89.
The first detections of CH3SH, C3H+, C3N, HCOOH, CH2CHCN, and H2CN in an extragalactic source are presented, and the molecular abundances are characteristic of diffuse or translucent clouds with enhanced UV radiation or strong shocks. Expand
Endangered elements, critical raw materials and conflict minerals
  • C. Rhodes
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Science progress
  • 2019
Amid present concerns over a potential scarcity of critical elements and raw materials that are essential for modern technology, including those for low-carbon energy production, a survey of theExpand
The definition of Vedic Astrology (“Jyotish”, one of the six Vedangas and ancillary of ageless four Vedas)) clearly refutes the wrong notion about Astrology. ‘The think tank’ holds that Astrology asExpand


The Dawes Review 2: Nucleosynthesis and Stellar Yields of Low- and Intermediate-Mass Single Stars
Abstract The chemical evolution of the Universe is governed by the chemical yields from stars, which in turn are determined primarily by the initial stellar mass. Even stars as low as 0.9 M⊙ can, atExpand
r-process nucleosynthesis in the high-entropy supernova bubble
We show that the high-temperature, high-entropy evacuated region outside the recent neutron star in a core-collapse supernova may be an ideal r-process site. In this high-entropy environment it isExpand
A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolutionof astrophysical objects
This paper outlines astrophysical issues related to the long-term fate of the universe. The authors consider the evolution of planets, stars, stellar populations, galaxies, and the universe itselfExpand
In this paper we follow the Galactic enrichment of three easily observed light n-capture elements: Sr, Y, and Zr. Input stellar yields have been first separated into their respective main and weakExpand
Presupernova Evolution and Explosive Nucleosynthesis of Zero Metal Massive Stars
We present a new set of zero metallicity models in the range 13-80 M ☉ together to the associated explosive nucleosynthesis. These models are fully homogeneous with the solar metallicity set weExpand
Core-Collapse Supernovae from 9 to 120 Solar Masses Based on Neutrino-powered Explosions
Nucleosynthesis, light curves, explosion energies, and remnant masses are calculated for a grid of supernovae resulting from massive stars with solar metallicity and masses from 9.0 to 120 solarExpand
The s process: Nuclear physics, stellar models, and observations
Nucleosynthesis in the $s$ process takes place in the He-burning layers of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and during the He- and C-burning phases of massive stars. The $s$ processExpand
The formation of the first low-mass stars from gas with low carbon and oxygen abundances
It is shown that as soon as the primordial gas—left over from the Big Bang—is enriched by elements ejected from supernovae to a carbon or oxygen abundance as small as ∼0.01–0.1 per cent of that found in the Sun, cooling by singly ionized carbon or neutral oxygen can lead to the formation of low-mass stars by allowing cloud fragmentation to smaller clumps. Expand
The Weak s-Process in Massive Stars and its Dependence on the Neutron Capture Cross Sections
The slow neutron capture process in massive stars (weak s process) produces most of the s-process isotopes between iron and strontium. Neutrons are provided by the 22Ne(?,n)25Mg reaction, which isExpand
The Effects of Mg/Si on the Exoplanetary Refractory Oxygen Budget
Solar photospheric abundances of refractory elements mirror the Earth's to within ~10 mol% when normalized to the dominant terrestrial planet-forming elements Mg, Si and Fe. This allows for theExpand