Three surgically treated cases of popliteal entrapment syndrome are reported. Two of the patients were consanguineous. This unusual syndrome is caused by an anomalous relationship between the popliteal artery and the musculature in the popliteal fossa. Arterial compression usually results in ischaemic calf pain. Popliteal entrapment syndrome seems to be underdiagnosed. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.