Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal diet, breast milk, and serum lipid fatty acids of infants in relation to atopy

  title={Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal diet, breast milk, and serum lipid fatty acids of infants in relation to atopy},
  author={Pasi Kankaanp{\"a}{\"a} and K. V. V. Nurmela and A T Erkkil{\"a} and Marko Kalliom{\"a}ki and Doris Holmberg-Marttila and Seppo Salminen and Erika Isolauri},
Background: The increased consumption of n‐6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to coincide with the increased prevalence of atopic diseases. We aimed to investigate whether maternal diet and atopic status influence the PUFA composition of breast milk and the serum lipid fatty acids of infants. 

Associations between fatty acids in colostrum and breast milk and risk of allergic disease

  • A. LoweF. Thien S. Dharmage
  • Medicine
    Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • 2008
This work has observed that high levels of n‐3 fatty acid in colostrum are associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization, and it is hypothesized that exposure in early life is hypothesized to offer protection against atopic disease.

Sex‐specific associations of human milk long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and infant allergic conditions

  • K. MilikuJ. Richelle M. Azad
  • Medicine
    Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
  • 2021
The association of PUFAs in human milk with food sensitization and atopic dermatitis among breastfed infants is examined.

Breast milk fatty acid composition has a long‐term effect on the risk of asthma, eczema, and sensitization

Levels of n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n‐6 PUFAs in breast milk of allergic‐ and nonallergic mothers and asthma, eczema and sensitization up to the age of 14 years are studied.

Association of breast milk fatty acids with allergic disease outcomes—A systematic review

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids have immunoregulatory properties and it has been hypothesized that these PUFAs may be important in the aetiology of allergic diseases.

Maternal dietary fat and fatty acid intake during lactation and the risk of asthma in the offspring

The association between maternal dietary fat and fatty acid intake during lactation, and the risk of asthma in the offspring by the age of 5 years is explored.

Intake of unsaturated fatty acids and HDL cholesterol levels are associated with manifestations of atopy in adults

  • T. SchäferS. Ruhdorfer J. Ring
  • Medicine
    Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • 2003
This work investigated the relationship between serum cholesterol levels, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and manifestations of atopy in a population‐based setting and concluded that the intake of unsaturated acids is a contributing cause of this development.

Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy

Maternal intake of omega‐3 (ω‐3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during pregnancy has decreased, possibly contributing to a current increased risk of childhood allergy.

The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition

Background Breast milk contains many immunomodulatory factors (soluble CD14 (sCD14), IgA and cytokines) with the potential to influence infant immune development.

Early life diet and asthma, with an emphasis on the role of fatty acids

This birth cohort study investigated whether maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, especially fats and fatty acids (FA), and the child’s diet and serum FA proportions during infancy and childhood, are associated with the development of childhood asthma.

Serum, cheek cell and breast milk fatty acid compositions in infants with atopic and non‐atopic eczema

Background The major theory implicating diet with allergic diseases is associated with altered food consumption and subsequent changes in fatty acid composition.



(n‐6)‐Fatty acids in plasma lipids of children with atopic bronchial asthma

  • M. LeichsenringU. KochsiekK. Paul
  • Medicine, Biology
    Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
  • 1995
It is concluded that there is no biochemical evidence for a δ6‐desaturation defect in atopic children and therefore no justification for the supplementation of GLA and DHLA; e.g. by the use of evening primrose oil preparations.

Serum levels of phospholipid fatty acids in mothers and their babies in relation to allergic disease

The proportions of various long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were altered in the serum phospholipids of allergic pregnant mothers and in mothers whose babies developed allergic disease over the first 6 years of life, indicating that atopy is associated with a disturbed fatty acid metabolism.

Atopic Sensitization during the First Year of Life in Relation to Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Human Milk

Low levels of LNA and total n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in mature milk from the mothers, appear to be associated with atopic sensitization early in life, as well as disturbed relationships between the n-4 fatty acid 20:4 and the n -6 fatty acids particularly in mature Milk.

Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development.

  • A. Simopoulos
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1991
Omega 3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time elapsed before appearance of tumors, which is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants.

Fatty acid composition in colostrum and mature milk from non‐atopic and atopic mothers during the first 6 months of lactation

The findings suggest that the LCP metabolism in human milk is disturbed in atopic mothers, as indicated by the lower relative levels of some LCP at 1 month, higher ratios of n‐6 to n‐3 LCP and poor correlations between the levels of the various compounds during the first 3 months of lactation.

Fat chance of immunomodulation.

Essential fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids of patients with atopic eczema.

The observations suggest that atopic eczema is associated not with any defect of EFA intake, but with abnormal metabolism, possibly involving the enzyme delta-6-desaturase.

Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

The hypothesis that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk is supported.

Maternal diet rich in saturated fat during breastfeeding is associated with atopic sensitization of the infant

Results show that an unbalanced maternal diet during breastfeeding may be a risk factor underlying the later development of atopic sensitization of the infant regardless of maternal atopic disease.

Dietary fat and asthma: is there a connection?

Changes in the diet may explain the increase in the prevalence of asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis, and the effects of diet may be mediated through an increased in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 which in turn can promote the formation of immunoglobulin E.