Polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids in health and disease

  title={Polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids in health and disease},
  author={H{\'e}rcules Rezende Freitas and Alinny Rosendo Isaac and Renato Malcher-Lopes and Bruno L. Diaz and Isis H. Trevenzoli and Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis},
  journal={Nutritional Neuroscience},
  pages={695 - 714}
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs). They mediate significant effects in the fine-tune adjustment of body homeostasis. Phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids also rule the daily life of billions worldwide, as they are involved in obesity, depression and drug addiction. Consequently… 
Endocannabinoid System and Its Regulation by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Full Spectrum Hemp Oils
Clinical evidence reviewed in this study links PUFAs and cannabinoids to changes in ECS tone, immune function, metabolic and oxidative stress adaptation, and overall maintenance of a well-balanced systemic function of the body.
Disentangling the Molecular Mechanisms of the Antidepressant Activity of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
This review dissects the current biological knowledge on EPA and DHA and their bioactive lipid metabolites to search for a pharmacological explanation of this, to date, unexplained clinical observation and proposes that these distinct features may explain the superior antidepressant activity of EPA rich ω-3 PUFAs.
Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Neurodegeneration
The potential mechanism(s) of CYP PUFA metabolites in neurodegeneration will be discussed, which will ultimately improve the understanding of how PUFAs affect neurodegenersation and may identify potential drug targets for Neurodegenerative diseases.
Dietary fatty acids modulate the endocannabinoid system in rat submandibular gland
Dietary n-3 fatty acid could be useful in salivary dysfunctions and modulate endocannabinoid system components in rat submandibular gland, what would have influence on Salivary secretion.
Fatty Acid Signaling Mechanisms in Neural Cells: Fatty Acid Receptors
A thorough characterization of lipid receptors of the nervous system could provide a framework for a better understanding of their roles in neurophysiology and, potentially, help for the development of novel drugs against aging and neurodegenerative processes.
Fatty Acids, Antioxidants and Physical Activity in Brain Aging
Recent data indicate the complexity and necessity of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for the maintenance of redox status and the control of neuroglial signaling under stress.
The Endocannabinoid System as Modulator of Exercise Benefits in Mental Health
Clinically, this promising field might be exploited by targeting the elements of the endocannabinoid system aimed to increase the exercise benefits applied to patients with mental illnesses by targeting those involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of the AEA and 2-AG.
The association of dietary patterns with endocannabinoids levels in overweight and obese women
In regard with the lower levels of endocannabinoids in healthy dietary pattern, adherence to healthy pattern might have promising results in regulating endOCannabinoids levels.
Hypothalamic endocannabinoids in obesity: an old story with new challenges
How these lipids are dynamically regulated in obesity onset, by diet and metabolic hormones in specific hypothalamic neurons, the impact of gender, and the role of endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes as promising targets for tackling obesity and related diseases are discussed.


Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism
Understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.
Effect of dietary fat on endocannabinoids and related mediators: consequences on energy homeostasis, inflammation and mood.
Literature data is described indicating that the tissue concentrations of the endocannabinoids and related signalling molecules, and hence the activity of the respective receptors, can be modulated by modifying the fatty acid composition of the diet, and particularly its content in long chain PUFAs or in longChain PUFA precursors.
Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice
The data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endoc cannabinoidoid biosynthesis.
Endocannabinoid signaling and its regulation by nutrients
This review summarizes literature data indicating that endocannabinoid levels, and hence their activity at cannabinoid receptors, might be modulated by food composition, and on type and esterified form of fatty acids in the different diets.
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation alters select physiological endocannabinoid-system metabolites in brain and plasma
The first lipidomic analysis of acute 2-week DHA dietary supplementation effects on the physiological state of 15 fatty-acid, N-acylethanolamine, and glycerol-ester endocannabinoid metabolome constituents in murine plasma and brain is reported.
Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell
  • S. Skaper, V. Di Marzo
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2012
This theme issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of ECS pharmacology, followed by discussions on the pivotal role of this system in the modulation of neurogenesis in the developing and adult organism, memory processes and synaptic plasticity, as well as in pathological pain and brain ageing.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease
Diet and drugs targeting PUFAs may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression.
Eicosanoids Derived From Arachidonic Acid and Their Family Prostaglandins and Cyclooxygenase in Psychiatric Disorders
COX-2 inhibitors are considered as the best target for Alzheimer’s disease because they are typically induced by inflammatory stimuli in the majority of tissues, and the only isoform responsible for propagating the inflammatory response.
Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2‐arachidonoyl‐glycerol and arachidonoyl‐ethanolamide, and their metabolites
2‐Arachidonoyl‐glycerol (2‐AG) and arachidonyl‐ethanolamide (AEA) are endocannabinoids that have been implicated in many physiologic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndromes, hepatic