Polymorphism of the long-wavelength cone in normal human colour vision

  title={Polymorphism of the long-wavelength cone in normal human colour vision},
  author={Jay Neitz and Gerald H. Jacobs},
Colour vision is based on the presence of multiple classes of cone each of which contains a different type of photopigment1. Colour matching tests have long revealed that the normal human has three cone types. Results from these tests have also been used to provide estimates of cone spectral sensitivities2. There are significant variations in colour matches made by individuals whose colour vision is classified as normal3–6. Some of this is due to individual differences in preretinal absorption… 
Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching
It is reported that a common single amino-acid polymorphism at residue 180 of the X-linked red visual pigment explains the finding of two major groups in the distribution of colour matching among males with normal colour vision.
Polymorphism in normal human color vision and its mechanism
Variety of photopigment genes underlying red-green colour vision
The results show that men with normal colour vision often have more than one long-wave gene and that the number of X-linked visual pigment genes in individuals is much greater than was previously suspected.
Polymorphism of Cone Pigments among Color Normals: Evidence from Color Matching
A re-analysis of the classical color-matching data of Stiles and Burch obtained with 10-degree fields suggests a similar variation in normal color vision, consistent with the hypothesis that this color- matching variation in normals is produced by an X-chromosome-linked polymorphism in cone pigments.
More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision
Variations in colour matching data associated with light losses in the macular pigment
We present colour matching data for three groups of human subjects and we examine light absorption in the macular pigment as a source of inter-observer variation in the colour matches. Measurements
Adaptive plasticity during the development of colour vision
The molecular basis of variation in human color vision
  • S. Deeb
  • Biology
    Clinical genetics
  • 2005
Women who are heterozygous for red and green pigment genes that encode three spectrally distinct photopigments have the potential for enhanced color vision.


Spectral sensitivity of single cones in the retina of Macaca fascicularis
The measured spectral sensitivities of the red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones agreed well with estimates of the cone pigment absorptions derived from colour-matching experiments in humans, and at long wavelengths the sensitivity of thered cones was found to decline more rapidly than that of the green.
Lack of uniformity in colour matching.
  • M. Alpern
  • Biology
    The Journal of physiology
  • 1979
Individual differences in matching among normal (as well as among both varieties of red‐‐green anomalous) trichromats, on the other hand, suggest that the extinction spectra of the cone pigments sensitive to long and medium wave lengths may differ from one trichromaat to the next.
Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons
Both patients were classified as normal trichromats by all clinical tests of colour vision but there was a clear difference in their relative sensitivities to long-wave fields, which proved to be that required by the microspectrophotometric results.
Homogeneity of large-field color matches in congenital red-green color deficients.
  • A. Nagy
  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • 1982
Rayleigh matches obtained from red-green color deficients with conventional methods show large individual differences within diagnostic categories, and a theory that attributes these differences to the relative number of abnormal cones present in the observer's retina is described.
Flicker photometric study of chromatic adaption: selective suppression of cone inputs by colored backgrounds.
A model is developed to explain this surprising phenomenon where the cone spectral sensitivities of normals are seen to be the same as those of dichromats, although there is some individual variation.
Polynomial expressions of pigment nomograms
  • S. Dawis
  • Environmental Science
    Vision Research
  • 1981