Despite the abundance of research devoted to nosocomial pneumonia, so far there are no clear diagnostic criteria for it and predict the outcome of nosocomial pneumonia is based on the individual clinical, instrumental, laboratory and other parameters that are not related to each other as links in a single pathogenesis. External factors contributing to the development of the pneumonia and determine its prognosis, adequately lit, and the problem lies in the fact that no comprehensive clinical and pathophysiological approach to assessing the outcome of nosocomial pneumonia considering its immunogenetic features. One aspect of learning is nosocomial pneumonia appraisal of immune system, in particular, -- cytokines that have both diagnostic and prognostic value. As is known, the level of immune reactivity of the organism is fixed genetically, therefore, determines the importance polymorphisms of genes coding for the expression of cytokines as key participants in the intercellular interactions. In the present article we found that one of the factors immunopathogenesis of nosocomial pneumonia is a gene polymorphism IL-1β (-511) C-->T and IL-1RN. Genetic markers of risk of its development is the carrier of the allele C of gene IL-1β (-511) C->T. The severity and clinical features of the pneumonia associated with the presence of the genotype of the patients T allele of the gene IL-1β (-511) C-->T. Implementation of the pathogenetic action of this polymorphism is carried out due to overproduction of the cytokine IL-1β. Exposure to nosocomial pneumonia associated with haplotypes IL-1RN * 4-IL-1β (-511) C-->T gene of the same name cytokines having polar biological effects.