In the samples of Russian Ayrshire and Gorbatov Red cattle breeds, distribution of frequencies of prolactin (PRL) gene alleles generated due to the presence of polymorphic RsaI site in exon 3 were studied. In the breeds, the frequencies of the Ballele of the PRLgene (with RsaI(+) site) detected by the PCR–RFLP method were 14.1 and 8.6%, respectively. In Black Pied, Ayrshire and Gorbatov Red cattle breeds, variation of the microsatellite dinucleotide repeat in the regulatory region of the gene PRLwas also studied. Gorbatov Red breed was monomorphic at the microsatellite locus with the only allele 164 bp in length. Two alleles (164 bp and 162 bp) were detected in the other breeds studied. The frequencies of 164-bp allele of the microsatellite locus were 93.7 and 90.0% in Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds, respectively. In Gorbatov Red breed of dairy type with good beef qualities and low milk-fat yield, lower level of heterozygosity for PRLgene was demonstrated compared to Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds that have high milk-fat yield. In three cattle breeds, higher mean estimate of polymorphism information content of PCR–RFLP in exon 3 (PIC = 0.21) was revealed compared with the same estimate (PIC = 0.09) for the microsatellite locus variability in the regulatory region of the PRLgene. Characteristics of allele Bdistribution of thePRLgene in the representatives of the Bovidae family are considered.