Piezochromic Phenomena of Nanometer Voids Formed by Mono-Dispersed Nanometer Powders Compacting Process
Rubidium copper phosphate, RbCuPO(4), forms two room-temperature polymorphs that have been investigated with neutron powder diffraction. Polymorph (II) can be converted quantitatively into (I) by grinding the material or by pelletization, and the phase transition is accompanied by a significant colour change from very pale green to sky blue. Polymorph (II) can be obtained essentially free of (I) by quenching from 723 K. Each polymorph shows two unique Cu atoms: in (I) both sites are four-coordinate in a 2:1 ratio, whereas in (II) the atoms are four- and five-coordinate in a 1:1 ratio. In each case these sites are linked by phosphate tetrahedra to form three-dimensional frameworks based on the 4(2)6(3)8-a four-connected net. The Rb atoms are hosted in the six- and eight-ring channels that are similar to those observed in zeolite ABW. The (II) --> (I) phase transition is also accompanied by a volume reduction of 2.1% even though the average coordination of the Cu atoms also falls. The structures of the polymorphs are critically examined and compared with those of KNiPO(4) and KCuPO(4) in terms of hexagonal close packing containing ordered phosphate arrays. As a result of buckling of the six-ring layers, one-dimensional chains of dimerized copper polyhedra are identified in (II), chains that become trimers with mirror symmetry in (I).