Polymerous Leaf Whorls in Vascular Plants: Developmental Morphology and Fuzziness of Organ Identities

@article{Rutishauser1999PolymerousLW,
  title={Polymerous Leaf Whorls in Vascular Plants: Developmental Morphology and Fuzziness of Organ Identities},
  author={Rolf Rutishauser},
  journal={International Journal of Plant Sciences},
  year={1999},
  volume={160},
  pages={S81 - S103}
}
  • R. Rutishauser
  • Published 1 November 1999
  • Environmental Science
  • International Journal of Plant Sciences
In vascular plants there are at least eight ways to develop polymerous whorls, i.e., whorls with four or more leaves. Six ways are presented and compared with literature to estimate organ identity (morphological significance) of the leaflike whorl members. New shoots (also seedlings) may start with dimerous or trimerous whorls. Then leaf number per whorl rises as follows: (1) Many taxa add more leaves per whorl continuously with increasing size of the apical meristem (e.g., Equisetum, Hippuris… 

Lobe-generating centres in the simple leaves of Myriophyllum aquaticum: evidence for KN1-like activity.

The pattern of gene expression is indicative of shared developmental processes during early development between shoots, compound leaves, highly lobed simple leaves and unifoliate simple leaves which lack KNOXI expression.

Developmental Flower and Rhizome Morphology in Nuphar (Nymphaeales): An Interplay of Chaos and Stability

European species of Nuphar are among the most accessible members of the basal angiosperm grade, but detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy are lacking, and a two-step process of regulation of RU/branch initiation is hypothesized, with the second step possibly involving environmental factors such as gravitropism.

Floral anatomy and vegetative development in Ceratophyllum demersum: a morphological picture of an "unsolved" plant.

The initiation pattern of organs in the outer whorls of C. demersum flowers is distorted by mechanical pressure, resulting in the phyllotactic variation of staminate flowers.

Shoot Architecture and Branching Pattern in Perennial Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales)

New data are presented on shoot architecture and branching pattern in one of the two perennial species of Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Trithuria filamentosa, in the first detailed comparative study

Floral development and phyllotactic variation in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae).

The floral development of staminate and pistillate flowers of Ceratophyllum demersum was observed, with particular focus on the phyllotactic variation in staminate flowers, using scanning electronic

Unusual developmental morphology and anatomy of vegetative organs in Utricularia dichotoma—leaf, shoot and root dynamics

The principal component analysis was used in the context of dynamic morphology to illustrate correlations between organ types in the morphospace of U. dichotoma, revealing an organ specific patchwork of developmental processes for typical leaves and shoots, and less pronounced for a typical root.

Origin, Structure, and Interpretation of the Thallus in Hydrobryopsis sessilis (Podostemaceae)

The Indian Podostemoideae are characterized by a dorsiventral thalloid plant body, the nature of which is controversial, and lysigeny precedes the inception of endogenous secondary vegetative shoots.

Diversity of phyllotaxis in land plants in reference to the shoot apical meristem structure

Some aspects of the diversity and stability of phyllotactic patterns in the major lineages of land plants, from bryophytes to angiosperms, in which SAM structures differ significantly are presented.

Developmental Genetics and Morphological Evolution of Flowering Plants, Especially Bladderworts (Utricularia): Fuzzy Arberian Morphology Complements Classical Morphology

This review compares new developmental models on flowering and other vascular plants with evolutionary hypotheses formulated by Agnes Arber and like-minded botanists and focuses on the FAM Approach, which complements Cla ssical Plant M orphology (ClaM Approach), which is the traditional approach in botany.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 166 REFERENCES

Developmental patterns of leaves in Podostemaceae compared with more typical flowering plants: saltational evolution and fuzzy morphology

The developmental morphology of compound leaves is described comparing Apium repens (Apiaceae) with less typical angiosperms ("misfits") of the rheophyte family Podostemaceae, especially Marathrum rubrum, Mourera fluviatilis, and Tristicha trifaria.

SHOOT VASCULAR SYSTEM AND PHYLLOTAXIS OF CASUARINA (CASUARINACEAE)

It is concluded that each leaf originates at its level of separation from the axis despite several structural features suggesting that the leaf bases have become congenitally adnate to the stem.

The architecture of Mourera fluviatilis (Podostemaceae): developmental morphology of inflorescences, flowers, and seedlings.

The developmental morphologies of Mourera fluviatilis and other members of the Mourera group fit well with the Podostemoideae bauplan known from other New World genera, such as Apinagia and Marathrum.

Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology

This classic book, now revised and expanded to include the latest information on plant morphology, more than 1000 exquisite line drawings including 119 that are new to this edition, and nearly twice as many photographs as the previous edition is remarkable for its user-friendly organization, high-quality illustrations, and extensive cross-referencing.

Symmetry in plants: phyllode and stipule development in Acacia longipedunculata

In terms of both external symmetry and internal organization, phyllodes show a striking resemblance to stems, whereas so-called stipules appear more leaf-like because of their dorsiventral symmetry.

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth of shoot apices of holoheterophyadic species of Equisetum: phenology, morphology, and anatomy

Rhizomes of Equisetum arvense and E. telmateia were excavated to determine the time course of strobiliferous bud development and found cells lower on the flanks of the apical dome appear to increase mitotic activity, resulting in an increase in the size of theApical dome and in the number of flank cells and a change in form.

Leaf morphogenesis in flowering plants.

It is helpful to divide leaf development into several stages based on the time at which various features of the leaf become determined (Sylvester et al., 1996), because leaves are determinate structures, meaning that they do not grow indefinitely.

VARIATIONS IN LEAF NUMBER IN HIPPURIS. A STUDY OF WHORLED PHYLLOTAXIS

In tracing the development of leaves it is clear that nodes bearing leaves are produced in partially differentiated internodal tissue, as the apical thimble enlarges and grows.

Leaf polarity and meristem formation in Arabidopsis.

An important role for adaxial cell fate in promoting the development of axiallary SAMs is indicated and a cyclical model for shoot development is suggested: SAMs make leaves which in turn are responsible for generating new SAMs.

Different Patterns of Floral Development in Whorled Flowers, Exemplified by Apiaceae and Brassicaceae

It will be shown in this study that a number of different developmental pathways can lead to a relatively invariant mature floral morphology.
...