Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the human, affecting approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Although originally considered a gynaecological disorder, the syndrome is associated with a wide range of endocrine and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance. Affected women are at an increased risk of developing gestational and non-insulin dependent diabetes and there is an association with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, increased intima media thickness and impaired vascular elasticity. The effect on cardiovascular mortality is currently unclear. However, in view of the proven links with diabetes and the cardiovascular risk markers, this condition should be considered within the province of physicians as well as gynaecologists.