Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Fertility

@article{Lentscher2020PolycysticOS,
  title={Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Fertility},
  author={Jessica A Lentscher and Breonna Slocum and Saioa Torrealday},
  journal={Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology},
  year={2020},
  volume={64},
  pages={65 - 75}
}
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that has been associated with impaired fertility. This chapter reviews the underlying pathophysiology of PCOS and the associated fertility barriers of the condition. Psychologic concerns, hypothalamic-pituitary, ovarian, and mitochondria dysfunction, obesity, and the role of vitamin D in PCOS are considered with respect to fertility. Lastly, pregnancy risk factors associated with PCOS are also reviewed. 

References

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Polycystic ovary syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction
TLDR
Previous and recent findings concerning the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and PCOS are summarized and discussed. Expand
Therapeutic approach for metabolic disorders and infertility in women with PCOS
TLDR
The use of oral contraceptives has been shown effective in reducing acne and hirsutism and regulates the menstrual cycle, and the addition of antiandrogens to estrogen–progestin therapy has significantly improved the results. Expand
Vitamin D in the aetiology and management of polycystic ovary syndrome
TLDR
There may be a place for vitamin D supplementation in the management of this syndrome, but current evidence is limited and additional randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the potential benefits of vitamin D supplements in this population. Expand
Pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
TLDR
Pregnant women with PCOS experience a higher incidence of perinatal morbidity from gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia, and their babies are at an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as preterm birth and admission at a neonatal intensive care unit. Expand
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TLDR
There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that meetingformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Expand
Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline.
TLDR
There is fair evidence that metformin alone does not increase rates of miscarriage when stopped at the initiation of pregnancy and insufficient evidence that meetingformin in combination with other agents used to induce ovulation increases live-birth rates. Expand
A meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
TLDR
In conclusion, women with PCOS are at increased risk of pregnancy and neonatal complications and pre-pregnancy, antenatal and intrapartum care should be aimed at reducing these risks. Expand
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TLDR
The results of this study suggest that the higher risk of spontaneous abortion observed in women with PCOS is likely to be due to their high prevalence of obesity and the type of treatment they receive. Expand
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of pregnancy complications
TLDR
Overall, PCOS in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of GDM, preeclampsia, PIH, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, hypoglycemia, and perinatal death, and subgroup analysis suggested that these associations might be influenced by study design and pre-BMI. Expand
Obstetric outcome in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
TLDR
It is concluded that PCOS slightly increases the risk for GDM, but does not have an important effect on the rate of premature delivery and pre-eclampsia. Expand
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