Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Global Ecosystem

  title={Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Global Ecosystem},
  author={Robert W. Risebrough and P. Rieche and David B. Peakall and Steven G. Herman and M. N. Kirven},
Polychlorinated biphenyls are widely dispersed in the global ecosystem, and are powerful inducers of hepatic enzymes which degrade oestradiol. Together with other chlorinated biocides, such as DDT, they could account for a large part of the aberration in calcium metabolism which has been observed in many species of birds since the Second World War. 
Metabolic Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the American Kestrel
PCB are highly stable, insoluble in water and soluble in lipids; so that they can persist and undergo biological magnification in the environment.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Carbonless Copying Paper
The miserable episode of “Yusho”, a mass food poisoning involving more than 1,000 people which was caused by chronic ingestion of rice oil contaminated with ‘Kanechlor-400’, a commercial brand of PCB, occurred in western Japan in 19685,6.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Toxicity to Certain Phytoplankters
The growth rates of two species of marine diatoms were reduced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), widespread pollutants of the marine environment, at concentrations as low as 10 to 25 parts per
The Sensitivity of Fish ATPases to Polychlorinated Biphenyls*
The effect of PCBs on the ATPase enzyme system, which is known to be sensitive to chemically similar compounds such as DDT12–18, is examined.
Polychlorinated Biphenyl absorbed from Sediments by Fiddler Crabs and Pink Shrimp
PCBs have been reported in many marine and estuarine organisms and one PCB, ‘Aroclor 1254’ (Monsanto), was reported in water, sediments, and biota from Escambia Bay, Florida.
Polychlorinated biphenyls: occurrence and biological effects.
This review will be concerned with the levels found in the environment and an evaluation of toxicological and physiological effects of polychlorinated biphenyl in chickens.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Their Effects on Penned Pheasants*
Polychlorinated biphenyls have been useful industrial products since the beginning of their commercial production in 1929 and have been reported to be widespread in the world's ecosystem, building up in food chains as has been reported for organochlorine insecticides.
Identification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and DDT in Mixtures by Mass Spectrometry
PCBs interfere with the analysis for chlorinated pesticides because some of the PCB components from the technical mixture have identical retention times and respond to the electron capture detector.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Transfer from Microparticulates to Marine Phytoplankton and the Effects on Photosynthesis
Assays with chlorophyll a fluorescence in vivo indicate that the transferred PCB's reach sites in the photosynthetic machinery that are sensitive to the effects of these compounds.


Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in British Wildlife
Polychlorobiphenyl compounds have been detected in British wildlife. In birds' livers and eggs they are often in greater quantities than organochlorine pesticide residues. Polychlorobiphenyls are
Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Residues in Peregrines and Their Prey Species from Northern Canada
The levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues in Peregrine Falcons are reported upon to correlate with the reduction of the Pere Grine with the presence of pesticide residues.
A method for the determination of toxaphene in the presence of DDT
The experienced residue analyst is quite familiar with the indecisive and continuum-type curve produced by the pesticide toxaphene when it is analyzed by gas chromatography and the concomitant problems involved in the interpretation of the analytical results obtained from a sample of an agricultural commodity that may be suspected of containing excess quantities of this pesticide.
Pesticide-induced Enzyme Breakdown of Steroids in Birds
Birds were used in this work and the possibility of additive or synergistic effects of DDT and dieldrin was examined, which suggested that changes in hormonal concentrations and neurotoxic effects may be important.
Pesticides: Transatlantic Movements in the Northeast Trades
The amnounts of pesticides contributed to the tropical Atlantic by the trade winds appear to be comparable to those carried to the sea by major river systems.
Effects of some pesticides and related compounds on steroid function and metabolism.
  • D. Kupfer
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Residue reviews
  • 1967
This paper focuses on the effect of pesticides on metabolic functions which can be examined at the enzyme level and the literature is replete with examples of such studies.
Organochlorine Pesticides in Seals and Porpoises
Seals and porpoises in Scotland and Canada, far from the sites of application of pesticides, can accumulate high concentrations of residues in their blubber which cannot be confined to their place of discharge.
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Eggshell Changes in Raptorial and Fish-Eating Birds
Catastrophic declines of three raptorial species in the United States have been accompanied by decreases in eggshell thickness that began in 1947, have amounted to 19 percent or more, and were
Estrogenic Activity of o, p'-DDT in the Mammalian Uterus and Avian Oviduct
When rats and birds were treated with o, p-DDT, their reproductive tissues exhibited the same response as when they were treatment with estrogen, and the o did not accumulate in the reproductive or adipose tissues to a greater extent than p, p -DDT.