Polycentrism, Commuting, and Residential Location in the San Francisco Bay Area

  title={Polycentrism, Commuting, and Residential Location in the San Francisco Bay Area},
  author={Robert Cervero and K.-L. Wu},
  journal={Environment and Planning A},
  pages={865 - 886}
The San Francisco Bay Area has taken on a distinct polycentric metropolitan form, with three tiers of hierarchical employment centers encircling downtown San Francisco, the region's primary center. In this paper it is found that polycentric development is associated with differentials in suburban and urban commute trip times: commute trips made by employees of suburban centers are shorter in duration than commute trips made by their counterparts in larger and denser urban centers. Differentials… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Sub-centring and Commuting: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area, 1980-90

Like many large US metropolitan areas, the San Francisco Bay Area has experienced rapid suburban employment growth since 1980, much of it concentrated in sub-centres. This paper shows that, contrary

Urban Sprawl, polycentrism and commuting.A comparison of Seven French Urban Areas

In a context of growing suburbanization, does a polycentric urban structure lead to better job-housing balance? The study of seven very different French urban areas emphasises the existence of

Some Effects of Employment Centers on Commuting Times in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area, 1990

This study examines the relationship between one-way commuting time to major employment clusters in the Atlanta metropolitan area in 1990 and (1) the employment size of the clusters, (2) their

Polycentricity, Commuting Pattern, Urban Form: The Case of Southern California

This article investigates the dynamics of commuting patterns using the 2005 American Community Survey for Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties in Southern California. Using various analytical

Travel From Home: An Economic Geography of Commuting Distances in Montreal

The question of how home and workplace are linked through commuting is at the heart of much recent work on metropolitan areas. However, the emphasis tends to be either on spatial-economic models or

The Changes of Urban Structure and Commuting: An Application to Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States

While urban structures have been delineated at the regional level, few works have explored the impact of urban structures on commuting at this same level. This article studies how urban structures

Growth in Commuting Distances in French Polycentric Metropolitan Areas: Paris, Lyon and Marseille

It has frequently been suggested in the literature that a polycentric distribution of employment and people shortens commuting distances because people locate within or close to their employment


There is strong trend for suburban clustered employment growth in many large cities. However, such a polycentric employment growth is quite complicated and subject to many factors. Empirical research

The transformation of commuting patterns in the functional urban region of Budapest

The relocation of jobs to suburban areas have changed commuting patterns thereby increasing the significance of reverse commuting from the central city to the suburbs and cross-commuting within



Suburbanization of jobs and the journey to work : a submarket analysis of commuting in the San Francisco Bay Area

In recent years, a debate has brewed over whether the decentralization of employment has been beneficial from a regional standpoint. This article focuses on one aspect of the debate: how the


Diversified land use concentrations comparable with downtown in their range of functions developed in American suburbs in the last few decades. These concentrations take two forms-clusters, which

Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?

Basic to several key issues in current urban economic theory and public policy is a presumption that local imbalances between employment and residential sites strongly influence people's commuting

Commuting Patterns and Firm Decentralization

Since most employed individuals must travel between home and work on a daily basis, work place commuting has provided the point of departure for the monocentric model of residential location (Alonso

Office location — city or suburbs?

Suburban offices constitute a growing proportion of the metropolitan office stock in Melbourne. The relocation of around 1700 Coles Myer employees from the Central Business District to Tooronga, 8.5

The Rational Locator: Why Travel Times Have Remained Stable

This paper evaluates household travel surveys for the Washington metropolitan region conducted in 1968 and 1988, and shows that commuting times remain stable or decline over the twenty year period


Suburbanization of employment in urban areas has reduced the significance of the traditional downtown not only for shopping but also for commuting. However, there are no standard definitions of

The Changing Commute: A Case-study of the Jobs-Housing Relationship over Time

Commuting patterns between home and work were studied among 30 000 employees of Kaiser Permanente, a major health care provider in Southern California. The study tracked the differences between home

Jobs-Housing Balancing and Regional Mobility

Despite the steady migration of jobs to the suburbs over the past decade, many suburban residents commute farther than ever. In this article I attribute the widening separation of suburban workplaces