Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil and outdoor dust from a multi-functional area of Shanghai: levels, compositional profiles and interrelationships.
The Yellow River is the second largest river in China. In this study, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the modern Yellow River Delta (mYRD) were firstly reported. Twenty PBDE congeners in soil/sediment samples from mYRD were measured. The total PBDE concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 18257ngkg(-1) with a mean value of 836ngkg(-1). BDE-209 was the dominant congener, accounting for ∼86.1-99.5% of the total PBDEs. The congener profiles of PBDEs with higher abundances of BDE-153 and BDE-183 were similar to those in sediment of the Bohai Sea, indicating that they shared similar sources. The concentrations and congener patterns varied among different regions. Higher levels of PBDEs were found in the middle area (MA), and more complicated congener compositions were also observed in the MA, whereas lower levels of PBDEs were found in the modern course (MC) and the old course (OC). Much more PBDEs were detected in the top layer (TL) soil where more congeners were also held compared to lower soil layers, implying that more PBDEs were emitted into this area in recent years/decades. Organic matter controlled the PBDE distribution in the soil. Soil in this area might be a source of BDE209 for the Bohai Sea.